National Repository of Grey Literature 49 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Studying the evolution of chromosome rearrangements in pipid frogs using in situ hybridization
Bergelová, Barbora ; Knytl, Martin (advisor) ; Johnson Pokorná, Martina (referee)
In African pipid frogs we can find at least eight polyploidization events in which a lot of levels of ploidy arose. This group includes diploid, tetraploid, octoploid, and/or dodecaploid species. Due to this great variability in ploidy levels, representatives of the genus Xenopus are excellent model organisms for studying the evolution of whole-genome duplications and chromosomal rearrangements. Currently, little information is known about chromosomal rearrangements within the Xenopus species, specifically, there are only two known cases of large-scale rearrangements. The first is a fusion of chromosomes 9 and 10 in the subgenus Xenopus and the other rearrangement is a non-reciprocal translocation occurring between chromosomes 2 and 9 in the subgenus Silurana. In this diploma thesis, we attempted to expand the knowledge about chromosomal rearrangements using the fluorescence in situ hybridization method. We confirmed the fusion of chromosomes 9 and 10 in other species of the Xenopus genus, such as X. pygmaeus, and proposed a hypothesis about the possibility that this fusion occurred in the common diploid ancestors of this subgenus. We also gained further insights into the origin of non-reciprocal translocation within the Silurana subgenus. This translocation was not detected in the species X....
In vitro models for studying Syncytin-1-induced fusion of trophoblast cells
Jech, Lukáš ; Trejbalová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Zíková, Martina (referee)
Trophoblast cell fusion is essential for human placenta development. Apart from initiating blastocyst implantation, syncytialization is critical for optimal nutrient and gas exchange between mother and fo- etus. Multicellular syncytia called syncytiotrophoblast covers the surface of the branched structure of chorionic villi, which is in direct contact with maternal blood. Impairment of the syncytialization process leads to insufficient fetal nutrition and severe pregnancy complications. Syncytia formation is induced by the interaction of the surface glycoprotein of retrovital origin, Syncytin-1, with its receptor. Despite the significance of these processes, the details of cell fusion and trophoblast differentiation remain unk- nown. Furthermore, because of its uniqueness, the human placenta cannot be covered by animal models. As a result, research into human placental development, especially Syncytin-1-induced trophoblast cell fusion, is limited to in vitro trophoblast models. These models include primary trophoblast cell cultures and trophoblast cell lines, which can be obtained by immortalizing cell cultures or extracted from trophoblast tumours. Dedifferentiated trophoblast stem cell cultures were also established. The most recent approach, however, involves the direct reprogramming of dermal...
Radar and Video Fusion
Galeta, Ondřej ; Reich, Bořek (referee) ; Maršík, Lukáš (advisor)
Hlavním cílem této práce je zvýšení kvality sledovaní objektů v třírozměrném prostoru pomocí fúze radarových a video dat získaných ze scén sledujících dopravu. Práce uvádí několik metod zabývajících se sbíráním párů bodů ze souřadnicových systémů obou senzorů pro prostorovou kalibraci s důrazem na automatizaci. Práce dále řeší problém asociace více detekovaných objektů naráz za pomoci modifikovaného Maďarského algoritmu. Práce rovněž ukazuje některé způsoby predikce vzdálenosti objektů detekovaných videem pomocí datasetu získaného z radarových dat. Výstup z fúzního modelu poskytuje prostorově rozšířené sledování dráhy a přesnější počítání sledovaných objektů než radarové a video modely samotné, což může být využito pro další analýzu dopravy v zkoumané oblasti.
Evaluation of health and social services and their economy in the Slatinné lázně Třeboň s.r.o. after the Merger
The aim of the diploma thesis is an evaluation of restructuring of two spa companies, concretely a fusion of Aurora Spa s.r.o. and Berta Spa Trebon, s.r.o. into a single company Spa Trebon, s.r.o., from the point of view of an evaluation both of provided health and social services and economy, organising and management. Simultaneously, the aim was to introduce the clients´ opinions on the presented issue, that is the opinions on implemented changes. The thesis is divided into a theoretical part and a practical part. The theoretical part is focused on an introduction into the issue, characteristics of Trebon area, position of the spa rehabilitative care in the framework of provided health services system, the fusion and aims theory in the project of restructuring the fused spa companies itself. The processing is based on secondary data. The practical part of the diploma thesis is based on the data from Spa Trebon, s.r.o. The fusion itself was implemented 1.1.2017. Therefore the analysis used the data before the fusion, that is 2015-2016, as well as after the fusion, that is 2017, 2018, and partially 2019. These are concrete statistic data focused on an observance of the spa performances, clients amount, their structure according to the used services or an average length of the clients´ stay. Furthermore, economic data describing the company performances were used, which are available from free sources - AskNow system and the spa information system Open Spa. For the fusion evaluation also a quantitative and qualitative research was used, focused on obtaining an insight into a social reality through a questionnaire construction. The obtained data were recorded by a descriptive statistics (tables, charts). The results and conclusions reveal that the fusion was useful for example from the point of view of the growth of the clients amount. Likewise the clients, in the framework of their repeated therapeutic stays, they evaluated the implemented fusion positively. However the key conclusion lies in results of economy itself which proved the rightfulness of the implemented fusion in the field of economy. The results of the thesis might be useful for planning the further strategic development of the spa company.
Design of experimental device for testing of subcooled flow boilling
Gleitz, M. ; Zacha, P. ; Entler, Slavomír ; Syblík, J.
The article presents the principle and function of the Hypervapotron and the current work progress on the realisation of the experimental loop. Hypervapotron is a heat exchanger operating in a two-phase flow regime, in which the latent heat of the water/steam phase transformation is used, which enables the transfer of large heat fluxes (up to tens of MW/m(2)). For this reason, it appears to be very promising for use in fusion reactors. The article describes the steps leading to the final design of the experimental loop selection of suitable mesh parameters in the Star-CCM+ code, geometry and used materials of the single elements of the heating system using electromagnetic induction. The effort of the experimental loop and the flow study in the Hypervapotron in general, is dimensional and material optimization of the geometry is suitable for a wide range of applications for which the benefits of subcooled boiling and Hypervapotron geometry can be applied.
Rozložení tepelných toků na stěnu tokamaku způsobených okrajovými nestabilitami
Kripner, Lukáš ; Cahyna, Pavel (advisor) ; Urban, Jakub (referee)
Edge localized modes (ELMs) are a concern for future magnetic fusion devices, such as ITER, due to the large transient heat loads they generate on the plasma facing components. A very promising method of ELM suppression is an application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP); however, such application leads to localized places of higher heat fluxes called footprints. Both ELMs and RMP could limit the operational lifetime of the device. In this thesis, we analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of footprints using the tangle distance method in the aim to prevent a transient overheating. We also analyze quasi-double-null configuration of the ITER plasma which can be expected to be the most susceptible to overheating of the upper wall. Based on the modelling, the potentially dangerous configurations of the RMP have been shown. Using the ELM filament model included in the LOCUST GPU code, we study temporal and spatial distribution of the heat fluxes caused by ELMs in the axially symmetric and the asymmetric magnetic field. The results are compared with published experimental observations. Powered by TCPDF (
The role of integrins in gametes prior to fertilization and during their interaction
Foldynová, Veronika ; Komrsková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Tlapáková, Tereza (referee)
Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins that represent a large group of cell adhesion receptors involved in cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix and cell-pathogen interacti- ons. Up to now, 24 different integrin heterodimers have been detected in mammals. They are involved in a wide range of processes such as immune response, lymphocyte homing, platelet aggregation, also in wound healing, cell differentiation, migration, proliferation and even in cell survival. Integrins have also been detected on germ cells and are now known to play an important role in reproductive processes such as fertilization, embryo implan- tation, and embryonic development. The main aim of this thesis is to introduce integrins from the perspective of reproduction, integrin physiology, occurrence and localization of individual subunits in male and female germ cells. A significant part of the work is devoted to a discussion of the role of integrins in gametes, both during maturation processes (egg maturation in the ovary, capacitation and the acrosomal reaction of sperm), in sperm mi- gration, oviductal reservoir formation and their direct and indirect involvement in adhesion and fusion of the gametes during fertilization. Keywords: integrins, sperm, egg, fusion, fertilization
Interaction of retroviral env glycoproteins with receptors and virus entry into the cell
Přikryl, David ; Pečenka, Vladimír (advisor) ; Horníková, Lenka (referee)
Humankind has adjusted many animals, plants and bacteria to serve their needs. Now the time has come to exploit also viruses. The most significant applications for them seem to lie in the sphere of human health. Particularly the family of retroviruses represent a perfekt vectors for gene delivery to cure genetic diseases or to destroy undesirable, e.g. cancer cells. In order to efficiently use these vehicles, a series of problems must be overcome and some segments of retroviral life cycle must be more deeply explored. This work describes some of them along with possible ways to solve them. The first described area is nonspecific adsorption of virions on the cell surface, the second is securing effective interaction between envelope glycoproteins and receptors highly specific for the targeted cell type and finally driven fusion of membranes. Key words: retrovirus, adsorption, env, receptor, phusion
Selected issues of thermonuclear fusion in tokamak-like magnetic containers
Ondáč, Peter ; Tichý, Milan (advisor) ; Kudrna, Pavel (referee)
In this thesis there are summarized in the form of basic knowledge the basic problems of fusion research. It serves as an introduction to this field of physics for beginners, but also intermediate candidates. The first two chapters set out the basic terms and ideas associated with controlled thermonuclear fusion. Further described is the magnetic confinement in tokamaks. Physically most important is the third chapter, which includes more advanced parts of physics. It discusses the main focus of this work, i.e. some of the major problems hindering fusion research. Final fourth chapter is relaxed. It discusses the ideas and visions for the near and distant future.
The role of mitochondria in cardioprotective effect induced by hypoxia in rat
Lomnický, Matouš ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Hlaváčková, Markéta (referee)
Aerobic organisms need sufficient oxygen supply to maintain homeostasis. These organisms are frequently exposed in hypoxic environments naturally, and also occur in hypoxic states in various pathological conditions. Cardioprotective effect of hypoxia had been recognised more than 30 years ago; and later on, cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning were discovered. Long term exposure to hypobaric hypoxia activates cardioprotective mechanisms, which lower the aftermathes of short term ischemia of myocardia and the effects of further health complications. The core of protective mechanisms has not yet been fully clarified. This work deals with the significance of mitochondria on cardioprotection during hypobaric hypoxia adaptation. This work describes physiological adaptive processes on selected animals on natural hypoxic conditions and also molecular mechanisms, examined on experimental models. Molecular mechanisms of the origins of cardioprotective effects discovered so far, mainly indicate PKC signal pathways through thyrosine kinase and mitogenes of activated kinase and also indicate an activation of sarcKATP-channels and mitoKATP-channels. Opening of these channels can protect mitochondria against a Ca2+ overload, or can lead to an increase in mitochondrial capacity which is possibly connected...

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