National Repository of Grey Literature 193 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Mechanism and Effects of General Anaesthetics
Páchniková, Nina ; Groborz, Ondřej (advisor) ; Hrčka Krausová, Barbora (referee)
General anesthetics are key pharmacological agents that induce a reversible state of unconsciousness and allow surgical procedures to be performed. Despite their widespread use, the exact mechanism of action of general anesthetics remains partially unclear. This work provides a comprehensive review of historical and current theories of anesthetic function, examining general mechanisms of action and relevant target protein receptors including GABAA, glycine and NMDA receptors. It deals with the effects of specific anesthetics, namely etomidate, propofol, ketamine and isoflurane, examines their clinical effects, mechanisms of anesthetic action and interactions with various receptors. The thesis also discusses the implications of these findings, potentially informing future research directions. Key words: Anaesthetic, Pharmacology, Receptors, Review, Hypothesis
Vliv hormonů a léčiv na životní prostředí
Pospíšilová, Eliška
Bachelor thesis is focused on the theme "Influence of hormones and pharmaceuticals on the natural environment". The introduction describes the basic concepts associated with this issue (pharmacology, drugs, hormones, environmental pollutants or PPCPs). Part of the thesis is devoted to the basic division of selected drugs according effect. Following part is focused on selected drugs and their toxic effects on non-target organisms. Subsequently, there are mechanisms which serve to remove these drugs from the environment. The final chapter is listed statistic best-selling drugs in the Czech Republic in the period 2008 - 2014.
Analýza vybraných genových polymorfismů a její význam pro individualizovanou farmakoterapii
This thesis deals with the metabolism of xenobiotics and the fact that it may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms in pharmacogens. In the experimental part, samples of volunteers and patients were tested by several methods of molecular biology detecting these polymorphisms and the results were interpreted and compared on the basis of available studies. Furthermore, the work highlights methods that would lead to successful individualized pharmacotherapy in similar clinical trials.
Medical Herbs in the Czech Republic and their Use Depending on the Contained Active Substances
Casková, Petra ; Soldán, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Říhová, Dagmar (referee)
This thesis is focused on the use of medicinal herbs from the ancient past, starting with the world's earliest history of medicine, through the earliest evidence of the cultivation and use of medicinal herbs in the Czech lands, to their importance in contemporary pharmacology. The main aim is to create a concise, comprehensive overview of the methods of obtaining medicinal plants, including their collection and cultivation, their processing and subsequent possibilities of use. This thesis also includes ways of protecting plant species on the basis of regulations and laws within the European Union and in the Czech Republic. It also introduces individual species of the most commonly cultivated or collected medicinal plants and contains data on production, export and import within the Czech Republic. A list of substances contained in the drug and their effects on the human organism is also included in this thesis. In the next section, the most used medicinal herbs in the Czech Republic are listed, sorted accoding to their effects. The appendix contains a glossary of the most frequently used technical terms related to this subject. The second part of the appendix contains 33 photographs of selected medicinal plants mentioned in this thesis. The conclusion is dedicated to a summary of current trends in...
Nejnovější přístupy k léčbě Diabetes Mellitus
Hadjiyiangou, Katerina ; Štaud, František (advisor) ; Čečková, Martina (referee)
English abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the best known endocrine disease of the pancreas where the incidence of the affected individuals is increasing rapidly worldwide. It is caused by defects in both the pancreatic islets and in the pancreas to produce enough insulin resulting in impaired glucose homeostasis leading to higher than normal glucose levels in the blood (hyperglycaemia) which is considered to be the hallmark of diabetes. Consequently the main aim of diabetes management is to monitor the glycaemic status. Diabetes mellitus can be subdivided into two classes, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) which is also known as insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which is known as non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Management of either type of DM requires a number of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and decreased weight with the intention of improving metabolic control and enhancing the quality of life. Unfortunately, the majority of patients will eventually require administration of antidiabetic drugs. The present study was performed with the intention of reviewing the currently available scientific literature about both types of DM and discuss the current and novel approaches of treatment, thus giving more emphasis on the novel advances. For...
The distribution of medicaments by the nursing sister in the social wealfare institutes
Havlínová, Petra ; Hošťálková, Monika (advisor) ; Marková, Iva (referee)
This bachelor's thesis focuses on the distribution of medication in the social welfare health institution. The objectives of the thesis were to focus on procedures of distributing medication by nurses and to introduce the most frequent complications when distributing the medication in the social care institute. The thesis is composed of two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes social and health care services, a health and social care system, a general pharmacology, medicaments' distribution and the complications during the distribution, and the competency of nurses. The research part concentrates on individual study and describes a methodology of research and its organization. This research was done via survey, and the results are analyzed and discussed. Key words: social service, health service, healt-social care, distribution of medicaments, pharmacology, competence of nursis, complication
Léčivé rostliny v historických zahradách
Prnková, Markéta
This thesis focuses on medicinal plants cultivated or imported, collected and used in Middle Ages. It examines the processing of those plants in history as well as in today s traditional medicine, phytotherapy, and in pharmacology. There is mentioned more than 20 historically most important botanical species in 12 families in the literary part of this thesis. With every species we learn about its area of origin, brief botanical description, collected parts of the plant, which part of the plant is used as a drug and what effects it has on human organism. The basic charts contain an overview of 379 taxons described in Middle Ages. The charts containing the seeds and seedlings are based on the range of goods of four important companies which offer these days the same range of medicinal plants that were available in Middle Ages. These charts contain 95 species of medicinal plants.
Structural and pharmacological determinants of NMDA receptor channel gating
Ladislav, Marek ; Krůšek, Jan (advisor) ; Bendová, Zdeňka (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are heterotetramers containing two obligatory glycine-binding (GluN1) and two glutamate/glycine-binding (GluN2/3) subunits. These receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a key role in high order neuronal processes as a learning and formation of memory. It has been shown that dysregulation of NMDARs is involved in the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Each receptor is composed of four protomers exhibiting a conserved domain organization. The most distal part to the cell membrane is the amino-terminal domain that is linked to the ligand binding domain (LBD), which is connected to the pore-forming transmembrane domain (TMD) communicating with the intracellular carboxy-terminal domain. LBD and TMD are connected via three polypeptide chains - linkers. Channel opening is the key step in the NMDAR gating that allows the flux of ions across the membrane. The energy of agonist binding-evoked conformational changes is transferred via linkers to M3 helices forming an ion channel. The rearrangement of M3 helices in activated receptor makes the central cavity of the channel accessible. The details of energy transfer are not yet fully characterized, although accurate knowledge of the receptor gating...

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