National Repository of Grey Literature 197 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Epidemiological Analysis of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Czechia
Sekera, Jan Carlos ; Dzúrová, Dagmar (advisor) ; Pikhart, Hynek (referee) ; Rob, Filip (referee)
Sexually transmitted infections are among the diseases that are showing an increase and pose significant health problems, especially among the young population. They directly impact sexual reproductive health through stigma, infertility, cancer and pregnancy complications and can increase the risk of HIV. The dissertation focuses on the epidemiological situation of sexually transmitted infections in the Czech Republic. It seeks to supplement the missing data on this group of diseases and thus contribute by analysis to a better understanding of the development and current state in the Czech Republic. The work is conceived as a set of articles. Within the dissertation, the author introduces the context of his professional focus within the field of knowledge through published studies. The published studies that make up this dissertation focused on four critical areas of the issue of sexually transmitted infections: health literacy, socio-demographic analysis of injecting drug users, HIV testing at the time of the pandemic and regional differences The first set of included papers analysed HIV/AIDS health literacy levels. Knowledge of inequalities in health literacy is a crucial prerequisite for applying preventive measures. The second of the enrolled studies focused on analysing sexually transmitted...
Epidemické modely s vakcinací a behaviorálními změnami
Compartmental models used in mathematical epidemiology were studied in order to learn about basic principles of those models and to create new ones. First two chapters are about basic SIR model, it's history and analysis. Next chapters then contain models with behavioral changes and vaccination. Models were illustrated by simulations created in the software AnyLogic.
Selected aspects of methotrexate treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Hloch, Karel ; Pávek, Petr (advisor) ; Souček, Miroslav (referee) ; Tomčík, Michal (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Training Workplace Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy Doctoral Degree Program Clinical and Social Pharmacy Candidate MSc. Karel Hloch Supervisor prof. PharmD. Petr Pávek, Ph.D. Advisor assoc. prof. MUDr. Tomáš Soukup, Ph.D.; PharmD. Martin Doseděl, Ph.D. Title of Doctoral Thesis: Selected aspects of methotrexate treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis Introduction and objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease typically connected with chronic inflammation of the joints, causing their swelling and pain. The prevalence of RA is about 1% in the general population. A crucial role in higher morbidity and mortality in RA patients has been associated with increased inflammatory activity. Methotrexate (MTX), a drug with immunosuppressive activity, is the most frequent drug of choice used in RA therapy. It seems that main anti-inflammatory effect is mediated via release of purine nucleoside adenosine. The status of patients with inflammatory diseases is influenced by activation of A2a and A3 adenosine receptors. High caffeine (adenosine receptor antagonist) consumption may therefore lead to alteration of MTX treatment efficacy. 1) The aim of first study was to determine whether RA patients who had discontinued...
Leishmaniases and their vectors in western Africa
Hošková, Anna ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Sádlová, Jovana (referee)
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. In West Africa, leishmaniasis is endemic and we distinguish cutaneous, visceral and mucocutaneous form of the disease. The most common form in this area is cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is caused by Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and a new, as yet undescribed species Leishmania sp. from Ghana. The causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis are Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. Phlebotomus duboscqi is a confirmed vector of L. major in this region. Vectors of Leishmania sp. from Ghana and vectors of visceral leishmaniasis remain unknown in West Africa. Sand flies of the genus Sergentomyia or Culicoides biting midges are considered as potential alternative vectors in this area. The confirmed reservoir hosts of L. major in some countries are the rodents Tatera gambiana, Arvicanthis niloticus and Mastomys erythroleucus, but in most states they are not confirmed. The reservoir hosts of visceral leishmaniasis are mainly dogs. Some West African states used to be French colonies, and there are many people of African descent in France who come to visit their relatives in West Africa. This poses a risk of import of leishmaniasis to non-endemic areas. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarize the current knowledge about the...
Epidemiological modeling of Covid-19
Motlíčková, Klára ; Ředina, Richard (referee) ; Mézl, Martin (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with matematical compartment modeling of the COVID-19 pandemic. The basic epidemiological models are presented and six studies that deal with the behavior of the SARS-CoV-2 virus under different conditions are presented. On the SIR model are estimated parameters for first and fourth wave of the epidemic, using algorithm in MATLAB is made optimalization for all the waves of epidemic in the Czech Republic and also for the fourth wave on the SEIR model. The impact of antiepidemic measures is modelled on the SIR model.
Epidemiology of sporadic forms of colorectal cancer in terms of preventions and the possibility of early diagnostic.
Schneiderová, Michaela ; Bencko, Vladimír (advisor) ; Krška, Zdeněk (referee) ; Hudečková, Henrieta (referee)
Thanks to the latest achievements in diagnostics, surgery and oncology, the overall perspective of colorectal cancer has changed significantly. There are no doubts that we deal with a complex disease, requiring multidisciplinary approach and assessment. Only this approach can enable patients to survive longer and maintain acceptable quality of there lives. Taking a long view over several decades, the steep rise in incidence of this malignancy was strongly alarming. It is partly a penalty for a prolongation of life expectance, since one of the risk factors is age. Knowing the way of life and dietary customs of our ancestors, one cannot deny that the change of lifestyle including dietary habits, as well as decrease of physical activity, obesity, stress, unsuitable thermal processing of food produced in bulk, consumption of immoderate amount of red meat, limited intake of raw vegetable and fruits, excessive intake of xenobiotics, such as medication or cosmetic products, excessive alcohol consumption, particularly beer, nicotinism, environmental pollutants, etc. contribute to the increase of this cancer incidence. All the above mentioned factors have led over the time to a formation and development of numerous so called civilization diseases, among which rates the colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite the...
Ecology of flower smuts (Microbotryum) and their hosts from family Caryophyllaceae
Koupilová, Klára ; Koubek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Marková, Jaroslava (referee)
Anther-smut fungus (Microbotryum spp.) infecting plants of the Caryophyllaceae represents one of the most extensively studied plant pathogen systems. Anther-smut is a pollinator-borne disease that turns infected plants completely sterile. The aim of this thesis is to sum up the main findings about ecology and epidemiology of anther-smut disease and it mainly deals with various factors that influence disease spread and occurrence in nature. According to existing research, abiotic factors play minor role compared to biotic factors and interactions. Among the most pronounced, we can find variability in pathogen virulence and host resistance and also vector behaviour. When studying epidemiology of Microbotryum spp., it is necessary to take account of spatial population structure and metapopulation dynamics as well. Comparing life histories of different host species can also bring useful information. Key words: anther-smut, Microbotryum, Caryophyllaceae, pollinators, resistance, epidemiology, metapopulation dynamics.
Epidemiological aspects of inflammatory rheumatic diseases and diffusional diseases of binding tissue.
Hánová, Petra ; Pavelka, Karel (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee) ; Horák, Pavel (referee)
v anglickém jazyce Introduction: No information was known about frequency of common inflammatory disorders in rheumatology in the Czech Republic. Aims of the study: To estimate the standardized annual incidence (INC) and point prevalence (PREV) of six diseases (rheumatoid arthritis-RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis-JIA, gout, psoriatic arthritis-PsA, ankylosing spondylitis-AS, reactive arthritis-ReA) in a population-based study in two regions of the Czech Republic (CR). Methods: INC: Incident cases were registered on condition that the definite diagnosis was confirmed according to existing classification criteria during the study period. PREV was studied on the basis of identification of established diagnoses at a time point. Crude rates were standardized for age and sex. Results: Both INC and PREV are shown per 100.000 inhabitants. RA INC:31 (95%CI 20-42), PREV:610 (95%CI 561-658). Gout-INC:41 (95%CI 28-53), PREV:300 (95% CI 266-334). JIA-INC: 13 (95% CI 1-20), PREV:140 (95%CI 117-280). PsA-INC:3,6 (95% CI 1-8), PREV:49 (95%CI 40-60). AS-INC:6 (95% CI 3-11), PREV:94 (95% CI 94-109). ReA-INC:9 (95% CI 6-15), PREV:91 (95% CI 78-106). Conclusion: This is the first population-based study estimating annual incidence and prevalence rates of the most common rheumatological disorders in the Czech...
Ebola as a medical and social problem
Gantsetseg, Purevsuren ; Hladká, Petra (advisor) ; Kordulová, Pavla (referee)
Introduction: The aim of bachelor thesis is about the preparedness of health care facilities. The unexpected epidemic of Ebola 2014 in West Africa has become an international concern and the preparedness of health care facilities, prevention and control of this disease have become a major issue of concern. Methodology: For the development of the thesis, we chose a qualitative method, a form of research was an interview. The questions were designed in our own creation. The interview was conducted by epidemiological workers in surveyed health care facilities. The main objective of the research was to determine, what the methodologies in health care facilities are during admission and stay of a patient with Ebola. Results: From our analysis, the survey indicates that the organizational structure of hospital care ensures that patient with Ebola are handled according to the Government decree no. 15/2013 and health care facilities proceed according to the directive for unified procedure. In the development of an extraordinary incident, this is subjected to the International Health regulations in relation to the occurrence of highly dangerous infectious diseases in a health care facility. Another finding is that health professionals are familiar with the procedures in care of an Ebola patient by developed...

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