National Repository of Grey Literature 208 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The Impact of Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund on Convergence: The Case of Slovak Districts
Kotrč, Michal ; Šťastná, Lenka (advisor) ; Cahlík, Tomáš (referee)
Do Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund contribute to the improvement of economic performance across Slovak districts? In order to answer the question this thesis explores the impact of EU funds invested within specific operational programmes over the programming periods 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 on the decrease in unemployment rate and on the increase in real wage and employment rate. Besides the standard panel data regression technique we also apply a spatial autoregressive model due to the presence of spillover effects between regions. This thesis thus goes beyond the existing literature on the evaluation of the impact of EU funds in Slovakia as it incorporates spatial effects in the analysis. In comparison with the results of the baseline fixed effects model, the estimated impact of EU funds in the spatial autoregressive model is smaller and in certain cases even negative. Hence the results raise doubts about the efficiency of EU funds. Furthermore, after including the spatial effects we find that the existence and significance of the economic convergence across Slovakia depends not only on the chosen economic indicator but also on the specification of regional units.
Impact of Public Health-care Expenditure on economic growth
Nerva, Vijayshekhar ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
This thesis serves to investigate the varying effects of public health-care expenditure and private health-care expenditure on economic growth in developed and developing countries. I have contributed to the literature by using an expansive geographical dataset, lagged variables to address endogeneity, and model averaging techniques. I do so by first addressing the issue of model uncertainty, which is inherent in growth studies, by using Bayesian Model Averaging as the method of analysis in the thesis. Examination of 126 countries (32 developed and 94 developing) in the period 2000-2018 reveals that there is no variation in the impact of public health expenditure on economic growth between developed and developing countries. Contrary to public health expenditure, private health expenditure has a varying impact on both developed and developing countries. My analysis also reveals that the results hold when lagged variables are used in the model. Public health expenditure has unanimously a negative effect on economic growth in both developed and developing countries. Private health expenditure, on the other hand, has a positive impact on economic growth in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, I found that the results are robust to different model specifications. JEL Classification I15, O11,...
Transport infrastructure and its impact on the economic growth in the EU
Peterka, Adam ; Pleticha, Petr (advisor) ; Cahlík, Tomáš (referee)
The main objective of this thesis is to determine whether a relationship exists between transport infrastructure and economic growth. This topic has been discussed by many studies, however no relevant study has measured the dif- ference in impact between countries under the historic influence of the Soviet Union. A dataset of 27 EU member states for the period 1995 to 2007 for the length of roads, motorways and railways per capita was analyzed based on their historic membership in the Warsaw pact treaty. A production function approach was applied and the results show positive impact of motorways and railways on the growth of GDP per capita. Keywords transport infrastructure, economic growth, pro- duction function, Warsaw pact, railway, roads, capital Title Transport infrastructure and its impact on the economic growth in the EU
Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth in EU Countries: Role of Institutional Mechanisms
Ting, Ka Yee ; Young, Mitchell (advisor) ; Bruno, Randolph Luca (referee) ; Svoboda, Karel (referee)
In the past three decades, there is a growing trend of conducting fiscal decentralization in both transition countries and developed countries. The primary reason for this interest is the theoretical prediction that fiscal decentralization could promote economic development through enhancing or improving the efficiency of the public sector. Despite general acceptance of the contribution of fiscal decentralization to economic growth in theoretical literature, none of the previous fiscal decentralization studies have been successfully verified the growth effect of fiscal decentralization. Moreover, a majority of the empirical research analyzes the relationship without taking institutional factors into consideration, which may result in a biased conclusion. Utilizing fixed effects panel data regression models, this thesis is dedicated to examining the impact of fiscal decentralization on economic growth across 27 EU countries over the period 1995-2015. It first analyzes how the effect of fiscal decentralization on economic growth could differ in Western European (WE) and Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Then, it examines the complementarity between fiscal decentralization and well-established institutional mechanism in enhancing economic growth in these two groups of EU countries by...
Analysis of the Investment Environment of Chinese Commercial Properties in Czech Republic
Wang, Yining ; Vacek, Pavel (advisor) ; Svoboda, Karel (referee) ; Radošević, Slavo (referee)
Many countries would like to use foreign direct investment to increase the growth of GDP and promote stable development. The Czech Republic is one of the countries having the largest FDI within Central and Eastern Europe. Meanwhile, Chinese investments have increased significantly and already became an important feature of the China-Europe relationships during recent years. The closer cooperation between China and Europe could encourage FDI. Within the kinds of FDI, the real estate industries experienced a rapid increase in many developed and emerging regions. Therefore, the aim of this study is aiming to analyse the investment environment of Chinese commercial properties in the Czech Republic. Two basic research designs will be employed for this research. The first design is focusing on collected recent available data to present the investment climate of the Czech Republic. In this part, we also make comparisons of the Czech Republic with serval economies. We found that the relatively low cost of labour, low inflation rate, easier to set-up a business (in terms of both times consuming and cash consuming) make the Czech Republic becomes more attractive. And this is consistent with the empirical analysis. Secondly, the questionnaire method was used for the study and we get back 108 questionnaires....
The high costs of low literacy in the Czech Republic
Krajčová, Jana ; Münich, Daniel
By means of projections, we quantify the hypothetical impact of providing better education to insufficiently literate fifteen-year-old pupils on the Czech economy’s long-term growth in the coming decades, using a number of scenarios. Our projections are not predictions of future trends, but represent hypothetical projections of future trajectories based on what is currently known about the causal relationships between educational achievements and economic growth. Insufficiently literate fifteen-year-olds – those who do not achieve score enough in functional literacy tests – face substantial economic and social difficulties later in life. Across the OECD countries, 24% of pupils fall into this category. In the Czech Republic the proportion is slightly lower (21%), and this represents some 20 thousand pupils in an age cohort. Only a negligible share of these pupils attend four-year or extended gymnazia (academic upper-secondary schools). These pupils represent about a third in elementary schools, while they represent almost half of vocational / apprenticeship secondary schools (without the Maturita / Abitur school-leaving exam). School closures during the covid-19 era will likely increase unequal access to quality education and thus the proportion of under-literate pupils.
Cooperative as one of the possible tools of the economic concept of Steady-State
Dekastello, Petr ; Hájek, Jan (advisor) ; Vejchodská, Eliška (referee)
The thesis analyzes the theory of Steady-State Economy based on a research of literature as well as principles and starting points for its application in practice. The central question revolves around the viability of the theory. First, however, the thesis focuses on the context, i.e. the background and needs for the emergence of this theory. Thus, the research begins at a time of industrial revolution and the rise of modern economies. In the course of the research, the analysis also points out the phenomenon of cooperatives, which arise in the early days of industrialization, as examined at the start of the work. Later, after a comprehensive introduction of the steady-state economy theory, the thesis returns to cooperatives, as during the research certain parallels in both of the phenomena emerge. Consequently, the conclusion recapitulates and examines whether steady state economy has been proven to be viable, what could support its functioning and whether one of the answers might be cooperatives - considered they have been shown to realize certain assumptions of this economic theory in practice. After a review of criticism of both of the phenomena, a final evaluation and decision may be reached, i.e. the research questions may be answered.
Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth
Hayat, Arshad ; Cahlík, Tomáš (advisor) ; Bruno, Randolph Luca (referee) ; Semerák, Vilém (referee) ; Srholec, Martin (referee)
Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth Abstract This dissertation consists of three empirical research papers on FDI inflow and economic growth and the role the host country natural resources abundance and institutional quality play in altering the FDI-growth relationship. The first paper (chapter 2) investigates the FDI-growth relationship and the impact of the host country's natural resource abundance on the FDI-growth relationship. The paper uses a dataset of 117 countries over the period 1991-2016 and use system GMM estimation method and found a positive and significant impact of FDI inflows on the economic growth of the host country. However, FDI-induced growth was found to be more pronounced in the low-and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries. Further, FDI-induced economic growth is slowed down by the increase in the size of the natural resource sector both in the low-and middle-income as well as high- income countries. The direct negative impact of natural resources on growth was found to be stronger in the low-and middle-income countries compared to the high-income countries. Building on the results of the first paper (chapter 3), the second paper estimated a fixed effect threshold for the level of natural resources and found that FDI inflow has a stronger positive impact...
Socio-economic motivated migration; Impacts of "voting with your feet" in the U.S.
Schneider, Matthew ; Kozák, Kryštof (advisor) ; Mysíková, Martina (referee)
This paper explores the implications of tax policy on the migration habits of the wealthiest of tax paying groups in certain U.S. states, and quantifies those implications for readers so they have a better understanding of how human behavior and tax systems interact. This is done so by examining the general phenomena of tax related migration as it manifests itself in specific real- world examples. As such, this paper projects the number of high-income taxpayers lost based on increases to the rates of personal income tax, and the associated tax dollar gains/losses (i.e. to what extent are top-tax bracket filers "voting with their feet"?). The paper provides calculations for three different rates of population sensitivity, and the corresponding numbers of lost tax payers in relation to a tax increase. The paper then goes on to show the diminishing returns of tax rate increases on top-tax bracket payers by calculating the amount of time needed for migration to completely offset the original gains from the high rate of taxation. The findings of this paper, which examine the states of New York, California, and Connecticut, conclude that these states will exhaust tax gains from a 5% income tax increases on top-tax bracket payers in the long term (46 - 142 years), and further concentrate their top-tax...
The Impact of Ethnic Diversity on Institutions and Economic Development in Former Yugoslavia
Kaltak, Miran ; Schwarz, Jiří (advisor) ; Cahlík, Tomáš (referee)
The aim of the thesis was to conduct a research on impact of ethnic diversity on the economic growth of the countries of ex-Yugoslavia. The main hypothesis was that ethnic diversity affects economic growth. The research was done by using two different methods: a) calculating ethnic fractionalization index and GDP per capita; b) analyzing institutions as channels through which ethnic diversity effects economic growth. The results obtained within the first model demonstrated that diversity negatively influences economic growth. Still, no reliable conclusions could be made, due to low variability in data, short time frame considered and lack of regular data collection. Therefore, the second method reviewed institutions as a channel through which ethnic diversity affects economic growth. The conclusion of this model was that, ethnic diversity mainly has negative impact on the indicators reviewed, which then results in slower economic growth. The results of the research showed that ethnic heterogeneity is an important element in economic, political, institutional and social life of a country. It can be concluded that ethnic diversity is an important factor that should be taken into consideration when doing economic planning in a country as it has direct and, very often, strong impact on economic growth.

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