National Repository of Grey Literature 182 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Antidepressant potential of serotonergic psychedelics in preclinical research
Dušková, Valentýna ; Vejmola, Čestmír (advisor) ; Skálová, Kateřina (referee)
The treatments for depression available in contemporary medicine have a number of drawbacks. Modern antidepressants, despite fewer side effects than conventional ones, have a slow onset of action and their effectiveness is often individual. Recent studies of psychedelics have indicated their promising to extraordinary potential in the treatment of depression. Clinical research has made significant progress in this direction, as have a growing number of preclinical studies. Psychedelics potentiate signaling pathways and protein expression related to neurogenesis and cell viability and induce an increase in dendritic spines and dendritic branching. At the behavioural level, psychedelics have been shown to attenuate depressive behavioural changes, suppressing anxiety and anhedonia. This paper summarizes the effects of psychedelics in preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, taking into account the neurobiology of depression, i.e., mainly at the level of neuroplasticity and observed behavioural changes. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the general characteristics of depression and psychedelics, followed by an introduction to preclinical experimental approaches. The central part then describes and discusses individual studies. Keywords: depression; animal models; psychedelics; LSD;...
The impact of online learning on the mental health of high school students, with the focus on anxiety and depression
Šimonová, Lucie ; Kučerová, Olga (advisor) ; Adámková, Jana (referee)
This thesis deals with the impact of online learning on the mental health of high school students, with the focus on anxiety and depression. The thesis is divided into two parts, a theoretical and a practical one. The theoretical part explains the concepts of anxiety and depression and describes their symptoms, potential causes and ways of treatment. It also mentions phenomena which anxiety and depression need to be distinguished from. Then it deals with the period of adolescence, especially in the 21st century, and the problem of digitization. Due to the nature of the thesis, quantitative research was chosen, represented by a questionnaire, which was completed by 283 respondents. Data analysis showed that online learning seriously affected the mental health of high school students and had a negative impact on it. Out of the symptoms of depression, the students suffered the most with low mood, which significantly affected 62,4 % of the respondents. It was followed by the desire to do nothing, feeling of living an unsatisfactory life, loss of energy and fatigue. These symptoms significantly affected over 57 % of respondents. With anxiety, the students suffered the most from body pain, which affected 53,5 % of the respondents. After that, the most common were avoidance behaviours, anticipatory...
Depression as an escape from burden of life: Analysis of interviews
Bartošková, Magda ; Chrz, Vladimír (advisor) ; Klusák, Miroslav (referee)
In this paper I will be mapping an inner world of thought and experience lived by individuals suffering from depression. Based on differently experienced narratives I will try to reveal common features, which could help with better understanding "depressive mode of life experience". Research took place in Prague Psychiatric Centre. It consisted of narrative analysis of four 90 minute long autobiogaphic interviews. Four respondents were of both sexes and 17 - 59 years old. In these interviews was emphasized formation of structure in their life narrative. The result of this analysis was formlation of theory of Depressive mode of organizing the experience. This theory is expanded with mode of escape mechanism describing tightening of depletion of external purpose loop and causal mechanism of reluctance to pursue introspection, which leads to deficit of authorship and need for understanding and acting other, who would compensate described deficit. These models have been compared with other theories and research of C. G. Jung and Erich Fromm. Ideas of both authors complete each other and expand findings of this research.
Forced swimming test and mechanisms of depression
Janďourková, Pavla ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Vodička, Martin (referee)
Depression is a severe psychical disorder belonging to affective disorders. Nowadays, it belongs to the most common psychical disorders and prevalence is between 5 % to 16 %. An animal research is essential to study mechanisms of depression. One of the models of the depression uses a forced swimming test in the animal research. Even though this test does not claim to model depression in all complexity, it has very predictive validity and mostly it is used to assess effects of antidepressant (on the basis of observation of changes in the behaviour of the experimental animals). The aim of this thesis is to review the neural mechanisms of depression and to compare them with mechanism which can be applied in the forced swimming test and affected by the antidepressants. Key words: forced swimming test, depression, neurotransmitters, antidepressants, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and depression. Psychopathology by somatic deseases
Komorousová, Jana ; Beran, Jiří (advisor) ; Lacigová, Silvie (referee) ; Jirák, Roman (referee)
Diabetes mellitus is a severe chronic life-long disease. The condition itself introduces a need for patient's lifestyle adjustment to the disease and a number of everyday therapeutic and diagnostic restrictions. Therefore, mental disorders are more common in diabetic patients than in the rest of the population. Biochemical and hormonal connections between mental disorders and diabetes mellitus represent another reason for their higher incidence in diabetic patients. Comorbid mental diseases can further negatively influence the course of diabetes. They are especially depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and cognitive disorders including dementia. Type 2 diabetes is also more common in patients with primary mental disease, as is e.g. schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Regarding therapy, psychoactive drugs are used in diabetic patients. It is important to respect the specifics of the underlining disease during drug selection. The main factor for the selection of the medication is, apart of mental problems, the influence on body weight and blood glucose. Mental disorders can be also treated by psychotherapy and psychoeducation. Studies performed in diabetic patients with mental problems suggest the need for intervention in this area. The practical part of the work introduces a...
Temporolimbic dysfunction in persons with mood disorders
Jakoubková, Zdenka ; Herink, Josef (advisor) ; Semecký, Vladimír (referee)
This dissertation explores the occurrence of symptoms of temporolimbic dysfunction with persons with mood disorder. Groups of pacients was concerned to persons with depression and manic depression disorder. The occurrence of symptoms was examined by questionnaire method. It is assumed that mood disorders are result of damage of structures in the temporolimbic area and that they will also manifest in the questionnaires being used. Theoretical part describes anatomy of the temporolimbic area and temporolimbic dysfunction. Practical part is focused on the evaluation of the outcomes from submitted questionnaires. KEY WORDS Temporolimbic disfunction, limbic system, depression, manic depression
SSRI Antidepressant Consumption in Czech Republic
Behrová, Júlia ; Horký, Pavel (advisor) ; Rejmanová, Anna (referee)
SSRI antidepressant consumption in Czech republic Author: Júlia Behrová Supervisor: PharmDr. Pavel Horký, PhD. Consultant: PharmDr. Eva Zimčíková, Ph.D Introduction: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the available amount of neurotransmitter serotonin in synapses, resulting in their antidepressant and anxiolytic effect. Objective: The objective of this diploma thesis was to evaluate the consumption of SSRI antidepressants in the Czech Republic in the period from 01. 01. 2008 - 31. 12. 2018, based on the data on consumption from the State Institute of Drug Control (SIDC). Methods: The research consisted of a retrospective analysis of the SIDC database. The study included all approved SSRI in the Czech Republic. Drug Utilization Review was used in the thesis as a methodology. Drug consumption is calculated as the number of defined daily doses per thousand inhabitants per day (DID). The data on the number of residents was acquired from the Czech Statistical Office. Descriptive statistics and ATC/DDD methodology were applied. Results: The consumption of sertraline and escitalopram increased significantly during the period under review. For sertraline, the DID increased from an initial 8.623 to 15.513, increasing consumption by 1.8 fold. The greatest increase in consumption was observed...
Tobacco Dependence Treatment and Depressive Disorder. Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Depression History
Štěpánková, Lenka ; Králíková, Eva (advisor) ; Šteflová, Alena (referee) ; Tuček, Milan (referee)
Success rate of tobacco dependence treatment among patients with and without a history of depression Introduction: Higher prevalence of smoking among depressive patients, as well as higher risk of depression in smokers, are well documented. Views on treatment of tobacco dependence in this subgroup of smokers are controversial. Aim: A/ To compare the abstinence rate among smokers with or without a history of depression receiving treatment for nicotine dependence at one year follow up. B/ Factors associated with treatment success were evaluated and analysed. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 1 730 smokers treated at our Centre for Tobacco-Dependent (CTD) between 2005 and 2010 was conducted. Patients were treated with a combination of psychobehavioural interventions and pharmacotherapy (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion or combinations). At one year follow-up smoking abstinence was biochemically validated by measuring expired CO. Results: 16.7 % (289/1730) of smokers currently, or had formerly, received treatment for depression. Based on the average Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), most patients with a history of depression were heavily nicotine dependent with a score of 6.1, compared to 5.6 (p=0.010) among those without a history of depression. The CO validated success rate...

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