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Indikátory zranitelnosti dopravy změnou klimatu
Mertl, Jan
Příspěvek je věnován vyhodnocení zranitelnosti dopravy ČR projevy změny klimatu, a to na základě indikátorů zranitelnosti. Metodickým základem indikátorů zranitelnosti je koncept zranitelnosti rozlišující tři základní komponenty zranitelnosti – expozici, citlivost a adaptační kapacitu.
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Vývoj imunologických testů pro detekci nebezpečných bakteriálních patogenů
Šmídová, Lada
The aim of the thesis was to develop an immunoassay for the detection of dangerous bacterial pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA infections cause global problems in health facilities which provide acute and follow-up care in inpatient and outpatient parts. That is why early and rapid diagnosis and targeted thereapies are very important for the subjects. E. coli was purified using the QIAquick PCR kit Purificatin isolated bacterial constructs, which were subsequently purified and dialyzed. The recombinant protein PBP2a in different concentrations was applied to a nitrocellulose membrane in the form of lines. Furthermore was performed optimized blot-line method for the detection of specific antibodies against the recombinant antigen PBP2a in the classes IgG, IgA and IgM. Several different concentrations of the conjugate Goat Anti-human IgG-AP, Goat Anti-human IgA-AP or Goat anti-Human IgM-AP were used for the detection. The color intensity of each line of the strip was evaluated with Immunoblot software. The measured values were used to determine diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and overall diagnostic match. Further testing of precision was carried out under repeatability conditions (intra-assay) and reproducibility (inter-assay). Precision of the method was expressed by coefficient of variation. As the most suitable for the manufacture of a IgG kit was determined the concentration of the antigen PBP2a from 0.30 mg/ml to 0.45 mg/ml and the concentration of IgG conjugate from 1:1500 to 1:1800. For class IgA as the most appropriate antigen was determined concentration PBP2a from 0.40 mg/ml to 0.52 mg/ml and conjugate concentrations of IgA from 1:500 to 1:1000. The coefficient of variation under repeatability conditions for the entire range of the IgG class is 10.09 %, and for IgA is 8.91 %. Variation coefficient reproducibility conditions for the entire range of the IgG class is 9.23 % and for IgA is 9.60 %. Precision of the method under conditions of repeatability and reproducibility for classes IgG and IgA meets the criteria for the manufacture of a diagnostic kit. Titration results showed that particular batch of cards made of nitrocellulose membrane coated with antigen PBP2a must always be verified on the panel of reference samples and the values of concentrations (for both antigen and conjugate) should be set according to the needs, but differently for the class of immunoglobulins IgG and IgA.
The effect of sensation disorders on upper limb function in patients after brain injury
Medková, Lia ; Angerová, Yvona (advisor) ; Rodová, Zuzana (referee)
OF DIPLOMA THESIS Name and surname: Bc. Lia Medková Thesis supervisor: MUDr. Yvona Angerová, Ph. D., MBA Referee: Title thesis: The effect of sensation disorders on upper limb function in patients after brain injury Abstract The aim of this thesis was to determine The effect of sensation disorders on upper limb function in patients after brain injury. Method: The research for this thesis involved non-experimental pre-research and quasiexperiments. The thesis' theoretical hypothesis was developed on the basis of previous studies that had looked at the effect of brain damage on patients' upper limb function. A total of twenty patients between the ages of 20 - 59 were selected to participate in the empirical study reported in this thesis. All participating patients had suffered damage to their cerebral cortex. The causes of their brain damage included strokes, trauma and tumor. The participants were divided into two groups of ten using the Nottingham Sensory Assessment. Participants with sensory disorders were allocated to the experimental group. Participants without sensory disorders were placed in the control group. The Jebsen-Taylor test was performed on all participants to assess their upper limb function after they had suffered brain damage. Results: Hypothesis thesis: Disorders of superficial,...
An examination (analysis) of susceptibilities to antibiotics of the strain Staphylococcus aureus performed by phenotypic methods in conventional microbiological laboratory and interpretation of its results.
MARIŇÁKOVÁ, Barbora
The aim of bachelor´s thesis is the understanding and the correct interpretation of results of susceptibility to antibiotics of the strain Staphylococcus aureus from serious clinical materials as a hemoculture, a peritoneal fluid from joints and abscesses, a smear from wounds, tissues during infectious total artificial joints, samples of an urine, materials from the lower respiratory tract and another clinical samples. According to data which have been used, my aim also have been to prove or eventually disprove the first hypothesis, that makes sense to collect also hemocultures from patient whose result in the serious clinical material contained the strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Prove or disprove the second hypothesis that with the number of positive results of the strain of Staphylococcus aureus in samples of urine will be in the same time the most positive hemocultures in percentage in comparison with results of the strains of Staphylococcus aureus in other clinical materials. Defined targets were reached by regular practical education in the Department of Clinical Microbiology. I had adopted a methodology of examination of susceptibility in the department and then have practiced under the professional supervision. Before the practical part of my thesis, I have had to elaborate and learn theoretical part of it. In that part is deeply described the kind Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotical treatment of this strain and the list of mostly tested antibiotics in the routine microbiological laboratory. In the practical part of the thesis I am focusing on the determination of sensitivity to antibiotics by the disk diffusion method and a defining minimal inhibition concentration. I have interpreted results and for example, I have depicted mostly occurred antibiograms and equally less occurred or rare ones. Then I have processed results of sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus. The examined set has been containing 588 samples of positive Staphylococcus aureus. 72 samples from the set have been MRSA positive. A representation of positive hemocultures has been examined too in currently or earlier found positive materials. Positive hemocultures in positive materials have been found in ca 5,2 % of all positive clinical materials. The most positive hemocultures were found in previous positive samples of urine ca 17 %. The second highest positivity of hemocultures was in samples from bones and joints ca 14 %. Then artificial materials ca 13 %, venous catheters ca 10 %, abscess ca 6 %, materials from respiratory tract ca 4 %, soft tissues ca 3 % and wounds ca 2 %. The significant gained finding and conclusion of the thesis is the fact that during serious staphylococcus infections the sampling of hemocultures is indicating as a necessity and as an obligation of the sampling of hemocultures of a patient is finding of the strain of Staphylococcus aureus in the sample of urine.
Resistance of Escherichia coli to selected antibiotics in the Písek district in 2016
BROMOVÁ, Karolína
The aim of my work was to gather information on resistance of Escherichia coli to selected antibiotics. To show wrong use of antibiotics and to prove that this problem should begin to solve. The research part was performed by data processing, cultivation, sensitivity determination and determination of a phylum using various laboratory methods. In my research, I used Escherichia coli from the urine I used phyla previously designated. To determine the correct phylum of Enterobacteriaceae, I made use of biochemical tests such as the ENTERO test 24 N and ESBL MAST test, for the Escherichia coli phyla, I have used the INDOL test and VPT test. To determinate sensitivity to antibiotics, I used the M.I.C disk diffusion test.
ESBL strains in urine samples processed in the department of Clinical Microbiology Pisek
ŠUSTROVÁ, Linda
The aim of my bachelor thesis was to describe and characterize the properties and effects of ESBL tribes, as described in the theoretical part of my thesis, to determine the occurrence of these strains at Písek's Hospital, a.s. and in the Písek district. Therefore, samples from and outside the hospital are evaluated. Therefore, samples from and outside the hospital are evaluated. The main purpose was to summarize data from the observation of the occurrence of ESBL tribes detected in clinical microbiology. The data were obtained from the database of the laboratory information system. (as called Open lims) of the microbiological department for 2016 year.
Resistances of Escherichia coli to selected antibiotics in a district of Písek for the year 2016
BROMOVÁ, Karolína
Resistance to antibiotics is becoming a global problem. In my work I focused on the resistance of Escherichia coli in the Písek district in 2016. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections. On average, every second woman and every fifth male will experience urinary tract infection. Resistance problems have met for many years. Previously effective antibiotics are now ineffective. Often they have to go beyond wide-spectrum antibiotics that have a number of side effects (diarrhea, yeast infections), are more expensive and have an impact on the economy. In the Czech Republic, we do not yet have the same level of resistance as in other countries, In Greece. Therefore, we should take an example from other countries and avoid massive use of antibiotics. The objectives of my work were to collect information on Escherichia coli resistance, to compare the differences between adult and pediatric patients and to determine the degree of ESBL strains in the Písek district in 2016. I compare the results of my research with the results of the urinalysis study of NRL SZÚ in Prague for 2016. In the theoretical part, I have dealt mainly with antibiotic characteristics, antibiotic resistance methods and briefly describe Escherichia coli. In its practical part, methods of identifying bacteria (ENTERO test 24N) are described. Principles of biochemical tests (VP test, INDOL test) to help us determine what type of bacteria might be. I also describe the principles and use of sensitivity assays (Disk diffusion test, M.I.C. microdilution test). Using the ESLB MAST test, I discovered the extent to which ESBL beta-lactamase-producing strains with extended spectrum of effect, which cause multi-resistance, were found in the Písek district. Furthermore, the practical part contains evaluation of resistance statistics on selected antibiotics, which I processed from data from the clinical microbiology of Písek Hospital. For my observation of Escherichia coli resistance, I chose 5 types of antibiotics used in the treatment of urinary tract infections - Amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxim, and gentamicin. The results of my work demonstrate that resistance to selected antibiotics is relatively high. It appears that women have more resistant strains than men, which can be explained by the fact that women are more likely to have urinary infections and more ESBL strains are present. No ESBL strains are present in pediatric patients (0 - 19 years). It also follows that girls are more likely to suffer from urinary infections than boys, with the only exception being girls and boys aged 0-3 years old, according to my research with urinary infections suffer more boys than girls.
Responsibility and Responsiveness in the State Governance. Case of Ukraine
Krasko, Arianna ; Svoboda, Karel (advisor) ; Riegl, Martin (referee)
The thesis examines the role of responsibility and responsiveness in the state governance. Governance as a theory is paying attention to studying a political process according to current situation. The political process deals with institutionalization of the governance system, through which citizens, institutions, organizations and groups in a society articulate their interests, exercise their rights and mediate their differences in pursuit of the collective goods. The role of responsiveness and responsibility of politicians before a society in such case become more and more higher, because by having a political power, they need to govern a state in properly, correct way. Institutional analysis, which is using in this work, is aimed to analyze a specific reform - decentralization of power in Ukraine, through which is easier to find how responsiveness and responsibility are relate with the governance. Moreover, the analysis helps determine where were made mistakes by politicians, which led to a slowdown of implementation of reform. Keywords: Governance, responsiveness, responsibility, decentralization Range of thesis: 110 976 symbols with spaces.
Portfolio - a Tool of Assessment in Special Art Education
Formánková, Iveta ; Novotná, Magdalena (advisor) ; Čech, Viktor (referee)
This thesis deals with the collection, sorting and by reflecting artistic expressions of a particular child during the school year. The theoretical part contains information obtained from the study of literature concerning the concepts of art education, perception, sensitivity, imagination, creation, communication, portfolio assessment, children's drawing, ontogeny, psychiatric diagnosis, developmental disorders. The empirical part focused on the development of intellectual and social abilities in connection with the development of drawings, a boy with psychiatric diagnosis. The work is processed by the methods of qualitative research. It is a case study with subsequent analysis results of operations,ie his artistic expressions.
The effect of pyrethroid based pesticides on fish
RICHTEROVÁ, Zuzana
Pyrethroids are ones of the most used pesticides worldwides. The widespread use and high stability of pyrethroids lead to the assumption of that their occurrence in the environment could be quite frequent. They can reach water ecosystem as pollutants. Residues of pyrethroids are not only detected in the water column, but also in sediments and in fish tissues. The first study was devoted to the product Nexide containing 60 g.l-1 of active substance gamma-cyhalothrin. Tested Nexide concentrations were 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 &microg.l-1. Early life stage test was used.Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was tested. There were significant mortalities in all concentrations except the lowest concentration during the trial. The lowest concentration tested 5 &microg.l-1 only caused a slightly increased mortality. This lowest concentration influenced the growth in length and weight negatively, decelerated ontogenetic development, and made the body surface of the individuals darker. Histopathology of individuals from this concentration revealed dystrophy in liver. Examination of kidney, intestine and gills did not show significant histopathological differences compared with control. The evaluation of selected parameters of oxidative stress demonstrated a significantly higher activity of detoxification enzyme glutathione-S.transferase (GST) and a significantly lower activity of defensive enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) compared with the control group. The other examined parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glutation reductase (GR), and lipid peroxidation determined by using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) were comparable to the control group. Changes in oxidative stress parameters suggest that exposure of the organism to the product Nexide in the given concentration leads to dysbalance of defensive enzymes. The second study was devoted to the product Cyperkill 25 EC containing 250 g.l-1. Tested Cyperkill 25 EC concentrations were 7.2, 36, 72, 144, and 360 &microg.l-1. The procedure of the trial was the same as the preceded one. There were 100% mortalities in all concentrations except the lowest concentration during the trial. The lowest tested concentration 7.2 &microg.l-1 allowed 90% of individuals to stay alive till the end of experiment. The lowest concentration influenced the growth in length and weight negatively and decelerated ontogenetic development compared with the control. Any individual exposed to this concentration did not reach juvenile stage until the end of the trial. Dark pigmentation was visible in 68% of these exposed individuals on the last day. Similar darkening was visible in individuals from higher concentrations shortly before death too. Histological examination did not revealed significant changes in intestine, liver, kidney, and gills compared with the control group. Evaluation of selected parameters of oxidative stress demonstrated significantly lower activities of GST, GR, and GPx. Activities of CAT and TBARS were comparable with the control group. Changes in oxidative stress parameters suggest that exposure of the organism to the product Cyperkill 25 EC in the given concentration could induce oxidative stress and interfere with the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The presented thesis summarises actual data about pyrethroids and their influence on fish. The demonstrated effects confirm high susceptibility of early developmental stages of fish to tested pesticides. When interpreting the results, we have to take into account the fact that studies showed this risk even on single pyrethroid substances. But water organisms are exposed to many other more or less toxic products and substances in a real environment. These xenobiotics could react with each other and their mixture could even potentiate negative effects. The performed studies also clearly show the significant differences in the sensitivity of embryonic and embryolarval tests.

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