National Repository of Grey Literature 30 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The influence of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters on the incidence of colorectal cancer and chemotherapy outcome
Krus, Ivona ; Souček, Pavel (advisor) ; Králíčková, Milena (referee) ; Hodis, Jiří (referee)
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies and affects approximately 5% of worldwide population. More than 75% of CRC cases represent sporadic forms. Susceptibility to nonhereditary CRC is significantly influenced by polymorphisms and mutations in low-penetrance genes. Variations in biotransformation and DNA repair genes may result in acumulation of toxins and DNA damage in cells leading to the development of cancer. Furthermore, different gene expression profiles of membrane transporters affecting the accumulation of anticancer drugs in tumour cells, e.g. ABC drug transporters, may largely influence inter-individual variability in drug response and chemotherapy outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of genetic and lifestyle factors in the risk of onset and progression of colorectal cancer. This study followed selected genetic alterations in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, NQO1 and EPHX1) and genes involved in response to DNA damage (CHEK2 and NBN), as potential CRC susceptibility factors. Another aim of this study was to investigate expression profile of all human ABC transporter genes to follow their prognostic and predictive potential in colorectal carcinoma. Materials and methods: The polymorphisms and other...
Nutritional recommendations during cancer chemotherapy
Balcarová, Kateřina ; Maruna, Pavel (advisor) ; Živný, Jan (referee)
This bachelor thesis investigated the nutritional recommendations during cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether the side effects of chemotherapy affect the dietary intake of a cancer patient. Apart from that, several goals were set. Firstly, to determine the awareness of oncologic patients treated with chemotherapy about nutritional recommendations that could influence the side effects of this therapy. Secondly, to investigate whether they act in accordance with these nutritional recommendations and to detect the source which is commonly used. Finally, to summarize the information about cancer treatment focusing on chemotherapy, its side effects and nutritional recommendations for them. The research was conducted in the oncology department of the Jablonec nad Nisou Hospital lasting from January to February in 2021. The data were collected anonymously by the non-standardized questionnaire. This questionnaire was given to the patient in the outpatient clinic and collected the next day when the patient attended the treatment. The research group involved adult oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy within the last 3 months. The total research group contained 37 patients, 20 women and 17 men were involved. The research focused on the relationship between chemotherapy and...
Current chemotherapy of protozoal parasitoses.
Valach, Marek ; Hrdý, Ivan (advisor) ; Arbon, Dominik (referee)
This work is devoted to the process of chemotherapy of diseases caused by parasitic protozoa. Even though being often shadowed by bacterial or viral infections, protozoan caused diseases affect hundreds of millions of people every year, especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the developing world. This great burden placed on inhabitants of these countries highlights the need for functional chemotherapeutics against these diseases, because vaccination is not yet an option. The goal of successful chemotherapy is either elimination or suppression of the parasite in the patient by exploiting its weaknesses in its life cycle or differences in physiology between the parasite and the host. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of chemotherapeutics currently approved for the treatment four most prevalent parasite diseases. The diseases are clearly described in the terms of symptoms, their socioeconomical impact and lifecycle of the parasite. An emphasis is placed on the description of mode of action of each chemotherapeutical agent and on mechanism allowing the parasite to resist the drug.
Nursing care of the patient with lymphoma
Marková, Naďa ; Kordulová, Pavla (advisor) ; Jeřábková, Lenka (referee)
(v AJ) I chose the topic for my bachelor thesis: Nursing care of a patient with lymphoma. I consider this topic as a very actual because the occurence of lymphoma is increasing (In: Linkos, 2019). Lymphomas refer to tumors which originate from lymphocytes. The theoretical part deals with the issue of lymphomas. I focus mainly on their diagnostics and treatment. And I deal with nursing care and the Lymphoma Help patient organization. Before I started to work on my bachelor thesis I had made a research in the National Medical Library. Furthermore, I used information from the databases: BMC, PubMed, EBSCOhost and Medline. I also used therapeutic recommendations - Cooperative lymphoma groups. Methology: I chose a case study of a patient with B-cell lymphoma from large cells, diffuse for the preparation of this thesis. I used Marjory Gordon's functional health model. Nursing standard procedures, potential risks of nursing care and their prevention are mentioned and described in a specific case. Objective:. I focus on general nursing care of a patient diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma from large cells, diffuse, who has undergone chemotherapy. Results: Nursing procedures are determined and their compliance is monitored. The information leaflet for patients is being created upon this study. Conclusion: New...
Breast cancer biomarkers after neoadjuvant therapy.
Skálová, Helena ; Povýšil, Ctibor (advisor) ; Kolář, Zdeněk (referee) ; Křen, Leoš (referee)
Chemotherapy is one of the basic therapeutic procedures of breast cancer (BC) which may precede and/or follow the surgical resection of a tumor as a part of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. However, the selective pressure of chemotherapy on tumor cells may change their molecular and expression profile and thus also their chemosensitivity. The aim of our work was to document the expression changes of selected markers in BC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which may contribute to the understanding of the role of these proteins and genes in tumor response to chemotherapy and the development of chemoresistance. Immunohistochemical analysis of expression of standard BC markers [estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), HER2 and proliferation activity (Ki67)] and intercellular junction proteins (claudin 1, 3 and 4, E- and N-cadherin) before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy revealed a decrease of PR, Ki67 and claudin 3 expression and an increase of claudin 1 expression. The expression of ER, HER2, claudin 4, E- and N-cadherin proved to be stable. Assessment of standard BC markers is performed routinely during a bioptic investigation as a necessary factor for therapy indication. Our results support the current recommendations for the re-examination before indication of adjuvant chemotherapy. Claudins...
MicroRNAs in AML pathogenesis
Koutová, Linda ; Korabečná, Marie (advisor) ; Zemanová, Zuzana (referee) ; Kotyza, Jaromír (referee)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a very heterogeneous disease associated with cytogenetic aberrations and genetic mutations. Many of these changes have been revealed and their detection became usual part of the diagnostic process today. However, changes of expression profiles of small, noncoding RNAs, so called microRNAs (miRNAs), are less known and not used for diagnostics yet. These RNAs, 19-24 nucleotides long, take part in the regulation of expression of different genes through complementary base pairing to the 3'non- translated region (3'UTR) of the target messenger RNA (mRNA). They can influence key processes of the cell, like differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. The changes in expression of different miRNAs are known from different types of cancers. In solid tumors, they are usually detected from bioptic samples; but also plasma samples are now in the center of attention as so called liquid biopsies providing the information about molecular genetic events in the organism. Many studies have revealed deregulated miRNAs in the bone marrow, full blood or isolated progenitor cells (CD34+) of AML patients, only four of them have analyzed plasma samples. We focused on the plasma samples and we targeted on such miRNAs, which levels differ at AML diagnosis and after the chemotherapy. Out of...
Nanoparticle forms of anticancer drugs and the mechanisms influencing their efficiency
Urbanová, Tereza ; Stiborová, Marie (advisor) ; Hýsková, Veronika (referee)
Currently, cancer is one of the major diseases of civilization. The disadvantage of conventional chemotherapy, which began in the 1940s, is its non-specific effect, so the cytostatics are toxic to healthy cells. However, if the cytostatic is inserted into a nanotransporter, it increases its specific efficacy and reduces the negative side effects. One of the possible nanotransporters is protein called apoferritin (a protein component of ferritin, an iron-carrying protein) that contains light and heavy subunits differing in their function in iron uptake. In this bachelor thesis, the ability of apoferritin to encapsulate two cytostatics (ellipticine and doxorubicin), depending on its origin and the proportion of light and heavy apoferritin subunits, was studied.
Education of patients with lymphoma
Marková, Naďa ; Kordulová, Pavla (advisor) ; Jankovcová, Kateřina (referee)
(v AJ) I chose the education of a patient with lymphoma as the topic for my bachelor thesis. I consider this topic very actual because the occurence of lymphoma is increasing (In: Linkos,2019). Lymphomas are referred as lymphocyte-derived tumors. I deal with the problem of lymphomas in the theoretical part. I mainly focus at diagnostic and treatment. I had started to prepare this bachelor thesis after the background research in the National Medical Library. I also drew the information from databases: BMČ, PubMed, EBSCOhost a Medline. I also used treatment recommendations - Cooperative Lymphoma Groups. Methology: I chose a case study of a patient with B-cell lymphoma from large cells, diffuse. I used the model of Marjora Gordon's - functional health model. A specific case is used for defining the treatment procedures, nursing standards, potentional risks and the prevention, education is also included. Objective: Focus on a nursing care - pacient with B-cell lymphoma diagnose, large cells, diffuse, who undergone chemotherapy. Results: Keeping nursing procedures and creation of educational material for patients. Conclusion: There are new methods of chemotherapy and new studies. A current study in Lymphoma: CITADEL 203, CITADEL 205, PCYC 1143 - SYMPATICO, ACELY - 308, PCYC 1141, BGB3311 - 212, IELSG37...
Bone marrow transplantation, its historical development and current trends
The transplantation of bone marrow - more generally said of hematopoietic cells - is in the present time one of the modern therapeutical methods used in cases of malfunction of haematogenesis inside of the bone. The ususal reason for going through with transplantation is leukemia, lymphomas, also anemia, congenital metabolic disorders, autoimmune disorders or some of the solid tumors. Thanks to the transplantation of hematopoietic cells, it is possible to highten the chance of restoration in more than 50 % of patients suffering from oncological disease. The submitted thesis is processed in theoretical form, it is goal is to present the important points leading to progress of this presently very much used treatment and also thorough descripton of present trends in the area of transplantation of hematopoietic cells, that are almost identical in local transplatation centers as they are in the world. Another goal is to describe the role of a general nurse during providing of the care for a patient before and after transplantation of hematopoietic cells. The thesis is focused on the key areas of the issues of transplatation of hematopoietic cells and it is divided into several parts. The first part deals with the general description of the topic, it presents short introduction into the transplantation of hematopoietic cells, the basic division, historical and current indications and short preamble into todays trends. It describes closely the area of the registry of the bone marrow donors, which is the basics for the choosing of the suitable unrelated donor. The second part of the thesis deals with the desciption of historical progress since the very beginnings, through the progress during postwar period, the development of 70s and 80s of the previous century and also the 90s of the 20th century up until the present day. The third part is focused on current methods of collection of hematopoietic cells and following transplatation, it also describes closely the ways of donating hematopoietic cells, the preparation of the patient for transplantation, the course of transplantation and what should the patient prepare for during the early posttransplantation period. The fourth part is focused on nursing, it states thoroughly the role of a nurse in the nursing care before and after transplantation of hematopoietic cells, the principles a nurse has to abide by, and it also closely describes the role of a nurse during transplant application. It also describes dietary and important regimen measures the patient is set to follow after transplantation. The last part is focused especially on complications that are possible after hemopoetic cells transplantation. The necessary data have been obtained through thorough study of professional Czech and foreign monoghraphs and scientific periodicals. The acquisition of the data was significantly contributed to by the attended internsip in Internal hematological and oncological clinic of the Faculty hospital Brno Bohunice. The findings regarding nursing were obtained especially by the study of nursing standards. This thesis points out the important role of transplatation of hemopoetic cells as a method of treatment predominantly of hemooncological illnesses in current medicine and the most important roles of a nurse during the nursing of transplantation patients. The thesis provides a comperehensive overview on the issue of transplants of the hematopoietic cells and describes key areas that are considered as important. It focuses on the historical progress and the desciption of present trends thanks to which the transplantology can be considered as a highly professional and top field. It also highlights the main roles of a nurse during nursing that must be proffesional, qualified, meticulous, considerate and individualized. The results of the survey are supposed to provide the professional and amateur public enough information about the issue of transplantation of the hematopoietic cells.
Advances in chemotherapy and novel antitumor drugs
Kraus, Michal ; Kovář, Marek (advisor) ; Koudelková, Lenka (referee)
Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. While some types of cancer became almost entirely curable, majority of malignant tumors are still potentially deadly diseases due to unsensitivity of tumors to conventional chemotherapy or diversity of cancer cells within the tumor and subsequent development of resistance. The underlying mechanism of action of conventional antitumor drugs is mostly related to cell division. DNA damage, inhibition of DNA synthesis and repair or disrupted formation of mitotic spindle are the most common mechanisms. However, it implies that most of the drugs are cytotoxic for rapidly dividing cells in general which results in variety of undesirable side effects for patients. Search for novel anticancer drugs targeting cancer cells more selectively has been point of interest of researchers for decades. Hundreds of new potential anticancer drugs are being described every year, some posessing so far unrecognized mechanisms of action. Process called drug repurposing examines drugs that have already been approved for clinical use in other than oncology field and results into discovering of interesting "novel" anticancer agents. Another general trend is represented by shift towards development of targeted therapy which is slowly replacing traditional cytotoxic...

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