National Repository of Grey Literature 99 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The Role of Tyrosine Kinase Activity of Mitochondrial ERBB2/HER2 in Breast Cancer
Novotná, Eliška ; Rohlena, Jakub (advisor) ; Vrbacký, Marek (referee)
Breast cancer is a common malignant disease affecting millions of women worldwide. Amplification of HER2 oncogene, a tyrosine kinase receptor, in breast cancer allows application of targeted therapy, but approximately one third of patients develop resistance to treatment. Relocalization of HER2 from the plasma membrane into the mitochondria was found and suggested as one of the potential causes of such resistance. Here we document that the function of mitochondrial HER2 is distinct from that of HER2 in the plasma membrane. Mitochondrial HER2 enhances cancer cell energetic metabolism, proliferation and migration in vitro, and tumour formation in vivo in mice correlating with elevated level of ROS signalling. The kinase activity of mitochondrial HER2 is unaffected, therefore I investigated its role in mitochondrial HER2 function. Moderate, endogenous levels of the kinase activity of mitochondrial HER2 drive pro-tumorigenic properties of breast cancer cells, while constitutive kinase activity sensitizes these cells to cell death and attenuates tumour formation in animal models. On the other hand, impairment of kinase activity due to mutation in the ATP binding site of mitochondrial HER2 supports adherence-independent growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. We propose that HER2 function in...
Quality of life of women with breast cancer
Vlachová, Nikol ; Matulová, Jana (advisor) ; Vachková, Eva (referee)
Author: Nikol Vlachová Institution: Charles University Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové Department of Non-medical studies Title: Quality of life of women with breast cancer Supervisor: Mgr. Jana Matulová Number of pages: 101 Number of attachments: 3 Year of defense: 2021 Keywords: quality of life, breast cancer, cancer, WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire The bachelor's thesis deals with the quality of life of women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer. The theoretical part of the bachelor thesis deals with the concept of quality of life, as well as breast anatomy, breast cancer, epidemiology, etiology, prevention, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, side effects of breast cancer treatment, nursing care for patients diagnosed with breast cancer and organizations dealing with breast cancer. The empirical part examines the quality of life of women with breast cancer using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire survey.
Marking of axillary lymphatic nodes in breast cancer patients.
Dostálek, Lukáš ; Pavlišta, David (advisor) ; Daneš, Jan (referee) ; Zikán, Michal (referee)
Introduction Axillary dissection has little diagnostic and therapeutic benefit in the node-positive breast cancer patients in whom axillary disease has been completely eradicated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (ypN0). We sought to assess the efficacy of an algorithm used for the identification of the ypN0 patients consisting of intraoperative evaluation of sentinel and tattooed (initially positive) lymph nodes. Methods Included were T1 and T2 breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes marked with carbon who were referred for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by a surgery. Axillary dissection was performed only in the patients with residual axillary disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy on ultrasound or with metastases described in the sentinel or tattooed lymph nodes either intraoperatively or in the final histology. Results Out of 62 included initially node-positive patients, 15 (24%) were spared axillary dissection. The detection rate of tattooed lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 81%. The ypN0 patients were identified with 91% sensitivity and 38% specificity using ultrasound and intraoperative assessment of both sentinel and tattooed lymph node according to the final histology. Discussion/Conclusion Lymph node marking with carbon dye is a useful and...
The functional in vitro analysis of the BRCA1alternative splicing variants
Ševčík, Jan ; Kleibl, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Stopka, Tomáš (referee) ; Macůrek, Libor (referee)
BACKGROUND: The inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 is a predisposing factor for a breast/ovarian cancer development. Formation of cancer-specific alternative splicing variants with aberrant biological properties can represent additional mechanism decreasing the overall BRCA1 activity in DNA double strand break (DDSB) repair. In this study, we analyzed BRCA1 alternative splicing variants BRCA114-15 and 17-19 ascertained previously during the screening of high-risk breast cancer individuals. METHODS: We established a stable MCF-7 cell line-based model system for an in vitro analysis of BRCA1 variants. Using this system, we analyzed the impact of BRCA114-15 and 17-19 variants on DNA repair kinetics using comet assay and confocal immunomicroscopy. The capacity of DNA repair was assessed directly by an in vitro NHEJ assay and indirectly by a mitomycin C sensitivity test. The proliferation activities were determined by a clonogenic assay and growth curves. RESULTS: Overexpression of BRCA114-15 and 17-19 increases the endogenous level of DNA damage, slows down the DDSB repair, and decelerates the initial phase of radiation-induced foci formation and prolongs their persistence. Moreover, BRCA114-15 and 17-19 differentially influence the activity of HR and NHEJ and sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to ionizing...
Breast cancer cell population. Its usage for setting of optimal therapeutical regimen. Predictive model.
Kolařík, Dušan ; Halaška, Michael (advisor) ; Kofránek, Jiří (referee) ; Dundr, Pavel (referee)
1 ABSTRACT Background Breast cancer cell population characteristics are used in common clinical practice for estimation of prognosis of the malignant disease (prognostic factors) and for prediction of reactivity of the tumor to certain therapeutic modality (predictive factors). Also axillary lymph node status is an independent prognostic factor in women with early breast cancer. Therefore, surgical excision and following histopathological examination of the nodes is the obligatory part of primary breast cancer surgery. The extension of axillary surgery varies widely, although sentinel lymph node biopsy is considered to be the standard procedure. However, it must be admitted that this type of procedure need not be optimal for all the breast cancer patients. Aims of the study The aim of this study is the verify the hypothesis whether or not the axillary lymph node metastatic affection can be effectively estimated using non-surgical methods - i.e. by evaluation of the combination of prognostic and predictive factors of the primary breast tumor. Statistical model composed on the basis of data of early breast cancer patients is the basic tool for this prediction. Application of this model In everyday practice can enable to adjust the extent of axillary surgery for each individual patient. Patients and methods A...
Detection of minimal residual disease in bone marrow an peripheral blood in patients with breast cancer.
Čabiňaková, Michaela ; Tesařová, Petra (advisor) ; Konopásek, Bohuslav (referee) ; Macek, Milan (referee)
Introduction: Simultaneous detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) was shown to be associated with an especially poor prognosis and increased incidence of disease-related deaths in non-metastatic breast cancer patients. We analyzed the occurance of DTCs in bone marrow and CTCs in peripheral blood in patients with primary breast cancer, we evaluated the correlation of their presence with other prognostic markers and we investigated the changes in DTCs/CTCs number at different time points during treatment. Materials and methods: Blood of 50 patients with primary breast cancer were used for immunomagnetic separation and detection of circulating tumor cells using the commercial available system the AdnaTest Breast Cancer™ (AdnaGen GmbH, Langenhagen, Germany). Bone marrow aspirates from 50 patients were analyzed for DTCs by immunocytochemistry using the pancytokeratin antibody conjugated with FITC (Monoclonal Anti-Cytokeratin antibody F3418, Sigma Aldrich, USA). Results: DTCs were identified in 30% (15/50) and CTCs in 22% (11/50) of patients. We found that DTC positivity could point to a significantly high risk of larger primary tumor size (p- value 0.011) and significantly higher risk of lymph node involvement (p- value 0.002). For CTC positivity, no such...
Identification of hereditary alterations predisposing to breast cancer development using "next-gen" sequencing
Lhota, Filip
Summary: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer type in female population of Europe. Approximately 5 - 10 % accounts for its hereditary form which is characterized by high penetrance, early onset, risen recurrence risk and development of other cancers. Mutational analyses of high risk patients identify a predisposing mutation in one of the most studied genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, ATM, CHEK2, NBS1, PALB2) only in less than one third of tested breast cancer patients. Lately, with the use of new methods of next-generation sequencing, a number of other susceptibility or candidate genes were characterized, but the incidence of their pathogenic alteration is often geographically different. A notable proportion of high risk patients from families with hereditary BC can represent carriers of population-specific, or private mutations. Most of the to date identified BC susceptibility genes codes for proteins involved in DNA repair, especially repair of double strand break DNA repair. Nevertheless the mutation analysis was conducted only on a small fraction of these DNA repair genes. We can expect that in the group of yet nontested genes coding for DNA repair proteins a rare, but clinically important genetic alterations predisposing to BC in affected families can be discovered. This work describes a...
Laboratory diagnostics of micrometastases in breast cancer patients
Mikulová, Veronika ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Svoboda, Marek (referee) ; Průša, Richard (referee)
Introduction: The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood has been associated with worse prognosis and early relapse in breast cancer patients. CTC determination in the peripheral blood has been considered as a liquid biopsy. The aim of this project was to analyze the presence of CTC followed by their molecular characterization with the potential use not only as a new biomarker for real-time monitoring of therapy efficacy but also as a suitable tool for patient's stratification and individualization of treatment for breast cancer. Methods: A total of 54 patients with diagnosed early breast cancer were enrolled into a prospective study. Ten millilitres of peripheral blood were sequentially collected to test for the presence and characterization of CTC during the follow-up of patients. CTC isolation and detection was performed by AdnaTest BreastCancer™ (AdnaGen AG, Germany), which is based on the detection of EpCAM, HER2 and MUC1 specific transcripts in enriched CTC- lysates. cDNA from isolated CTC has been further used for newly optimized qPCR assays for breast tumor and therapy resistance associated genes: TOP1, TOP2A, CSTD, ST6GAL, KRT19 and reference gene actin. qPCR results have been analyzed by Genex software (MultiD Analysis). Results: 195 blood samples have been...
Clinical and genetic aspects of familial breast cancerFrequency of recurrent mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Czech republic and the role of NBN gene
Matějů, Martin ; Novotný, Jan (advisor) ; Konopásek, Bohuslav (referee) ; Vaňásek, Jaroslav (referee)
Summary: Background: An increased risk for development of hereditary breast cancer is associated with germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and the influence of NBN mutations is also supposed. The aim of this study is to specify the frequency of recurrent mutations in BRCA1/2 in unselected breast cancer patients and the frequency of most common pathogenic mutations in NBN in Czech republic, to assess current criteria for genetic testing and to consider the addition of NBN to the tested genes. Methods: Screening for recurrent mutations 5382insC and 300T>G in BRCA1 was performed by RFLP, screening for mutations in exon 11 of BRCA1 was performed by PTT, screening for mutations in a selected region of exon 11 of BRCA2 by DHPLC, and screening for mutations in exon 6 of NBN by HRMA. All the mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results: In 679 unselected breast cancer patients 7 carriers of 5382insC, 3 of 300T>G, and 4 of other mutations in BRCA1 were identified. 2 locally prevalent mutations were found in BRCA2. In 730 controls only one 5382insC BRCA1 mutation was identified. Out of 5 NBN mutations found in 600 high-risk patients two were 657del5 and one R215W. A total of 8 NBN mutation carriers were identified among 703 breast cancer patients, 2 of them 657del5 carriers and three R215W carriers. In 915...

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