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Differential Diagnostics of Anaemias from the Morphological Point of View
Anaemia is considered to be a worldwide disease and it remains to be a topical one. This thesis tries to stress the importance of correct diagnosis of anaemia, without which correct and effective treatment cannot be adjusted. Although the number of people with anaemia is increasing, a large proportion are unaware of their disease, have not been diagnosed with it and therefore do not treat it. To diagnose anaemia is not difficult, however, differential diagnosis is the key to diagnose it correctly. A great contribution to the differential diagnosis is the description of erythrocyte indices that can be used to determine the exact type of anaemia and their subsequent use in differential diagnosis. The main objective of this bachelor thesis, entitled "Morphological Differential Diagnosis of Anaemia", is the statistical evaluation of the incidence of different types of anaemia, differentiated based on the erythrocyte morphology. Within the practical part of the thesis, blood counts were analysed on an automatic haematology analyser and then the data from the examinations were statistically processed. Excel was used to process all the data. The results of the statistical processing were entered into tables and graphs. Before the statistical processing, 3 hypotheses were defined and tested using a chi-square test which resulted in a level of significance (p). For all three hypotheses, the resulting level of significance was <5%, meaning that all null hypotheses were rejected and in all cases the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Surprisingly, macrocytic anaemia was more frequent than microcytic anaemia in the dataset (20 % of all types of anaemia versus 10 %), but as expected, hypochromic anaemia was more frequent than hyperchromic anaemia (17.39 % of all types of anaemia versus 5.65 %). Normocytic normochromic anaemia was the most represented anaemia in the dataset (62.61 % of types of anaemia). The results obtained from this study may be used for research purposes or as a source of information.
Vliv vybraných faktorů na biochemické parametry krve u koní
This thesis on the topic "The influence of selected factors on biochemical parame-ters in horses" deals with the evaluation of metabolism in selected groups of horses under defined nutritional and breeding conditions and the determination of possible metabolic risks and their solution. Substance metabolism was evaluated by means of selected biochemical parameters, which were compared between sport horses and horses used for riding lessons at the School Farm in Humpolec. Five horses were selected from each group and their breeding and nutritional conditions, physiologi-cal status, possible causes of metabolic disorders and proposed solutions were eval-uated. Our results agreed with those of other studies, but there was no statistically significant difference in the values of the investigated biochemical parameters between the studied groups of horses. The difference was noticeable between the individual sampling groups. Alkaline phosphatase was found to be in excess in some horses. Cholesterol values were lowest in the spring period and were outside the physiological range. Calcium values were found to be lower in the summer period, which may be due to insufficient calcium intake. Conversely, magnesium values exceeded the reference range and may be due to excess intake or kidney disease. Metabolic impairment can be caused by various diseases such as equine metabolic syndrome, developmental orthopaedic diseases, hyperli-pemia or laminitis.
Influence of minerals on health status and reproduction of cattle without marketable milk production
Minerals in beef cattle nutrition are very important for the health of cows, their conception and also for their calves and colostrum, which is very important to them. The aim of the work was to evaluate the health status and reproductive indicators in terms of the content of minerals in the blood of BTPM cows. The literature review describes the digestive system of cattle, characterizes beef cattle and especially meat simental, in which the experiment took place. I also describe the nutrition of cattle, blood composition and hematological parameters of blood. A total of 3 samples were taken every 3 weeks. In each sample, 12 blood samples were taken from cows aged 20-30 months with a live weight of 600-750 kg. Overall, most values were within the usual ranges. By maintaining the same feed ration and adding a mineral lysis with increased selenium content, the cows could get better and some mineral values would improve.
Theory and practice of using heparin flush
The bachelor thesis deals with recognition of theory and praxis of using the heparine flush in hospital establishments. The heparine, is currently registered as a risk medicament and more administration was added to it, which means that it is not used in praxis so much. These measures have been applied since after 2006, after the case which shocked the Czech Republic. Blood, blood clotting, heparine, heparine flush and venous ports in which it is or was used, are described in the theoretical part. The research part was implemented by quantitative method in the form of a survey of own creation, which was replied by 200 respondents. I chose 4 following departments for the research: internal department, department of surgery, department of oncology and department of paediatrics. The aim was to find out what is the standard of using the heparine flush in praxis. Following hypothesis were determined. Hypothesis n. 1, the frequency of using the heparine flush within 24 hours depends more on the doctor's office than on routine administering. Hypothesis n. 2, the way of solution dilution for the heparine flush depends rather on the doctor's office than on the department routine. Hypothesis n. 3, the way of administering the heparine flush by a nurse depends on nurse's experience with complication occurance. A non-standard survey was prepared to achieve the aim and to test the hypothesis. The survey was evaluated by means of graphical and statistical methods. The survey contained 25 questions. It was possible to state from the whole research, that the heparine flush has not been used so much and it is rather a risk than a benefit for a patient. An interesting information, which came up with the evaluation, was a fact, that nurses encountered the term heparine flush for the first time only at some of the departments where they begin to work. The outcomes can serve as materials for education of students at medical schools and they can improve the knowledge of the heparine flush, although it is not used so much.
Postnatální změny vybraných krevních parametrů
The aim of the bachelor thesis was to evaluate changes in hematological parameters in the postnatal period of calves. The literature review describes blood composition, physical properties of blood, hematological parameters and cryptosporidia, which are occurs commonly found in calves. We included 18 calves of holstein cattle and czech calves in the experiments red-spotted cattle, which we divided into two groups according to age. Observation started at 20 days of calf age and ended at 300 days of calf age. The results show that that hematological parameters change in postnatal calves. Concentration erythrocytes increased from birth to 140 days of age, but then with increasing age of calves there was a gradual decrease in the concentration of erythrocytes (from 10,35 × 1012/L at 7,45 × 1012/L).The hematocrit value (from 0,34 l/l to 0,27 l/l), hemoglobin concentration (from 133 ? g/l to 106 ? g/l) and mean erythrocyte volume had similar dynamics, (from 35,57 ? 1,44 fl to 33,12 fl). The leukocyte count in group 2 was in the refer-ence range for adult cattle (8,68 ? to 12,96 ? G/l), but in group 1 (c. parvum, c. bo-vis) they exceeded the reference range, especially in the period between 160.-180. bot-tom (12,96 G/l). The most stable percentage was lymphocytes, which accounted for 59,55 to 78,26% of the total number. In contrast, neutrophilic granulocytes had a signifi-cant tendency to decrease (from 31,70% to 14,53%). Anyway thus, there was a gradual percentage decrease in monocytes (from 9,17% to 7,51%). Platelet counts fluctuated slightly, but the average proportion ranged between 631,83-652,21 G/l.
The motif of pig-slaughtering in visual arts and its possible potential for the use in art therapy
The work deals with the tradition of the pig-slaughtering and its reflection in the visual arts, from the genre art of the 16th century to the present. This tradition contains both the religion meaning and symbolism of the bloody sacrifice, as well as the secular mening of the whole event and the customs associated with it: the consolidation of the community of a certain group of people, the nutritional and ecological value. There is also an allegory of human characteristics and tendencies in artistic reflection. It is not only through artistic creation that we can observe that the tradition of the pig-slaughtering is slowly disappearing, although the symbolism of raw meat remains in mind. Finally, the work reflects on the topic of the pig-slaughtering in the environment of Rožnov art therapy and monitors its terapeutic potential. Blood plays a role in the therapeutic use of the theme of the pig-slaughtering and its importance as a symbol of life energy. In the painting, blood is a metafor for unconscious affective forces that co-create dynamic processes in the human psyche. Thus, the topic of thepig-slaughtering in art therapy is used to work within trapsychic conflicts. I prove the variability of this work by interpreting the images of students in the field of art therapy created within a self-experienced class.
Determination of lead and zinc in great tits blood
Greguš, Viktor ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Nováková, Eliška (referee)
EN Determination of heavy metals in urban living passerine birds organism has been considered as suitable method for monitoring pollution of human enviroment which these elements can cause. This study deals with determination of zinc and lead in dried great tits blood samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique. Dried blood samples were weighed, solubilized in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and microwavelly digested. Calibration standards for determined elements were prepared and basic analytical characteristics of the measurement were determined. Matrix interference was examined by measuring the recovery of element determination presented as a ratio of the slope of standard addition to the certified reference material of whole blood sample and the slope of external calibration.
Anticoagulation factors and blood uptake by monogeneans of the family Diplozoidae
Skipalová, Karolína ; Mikeš, Libor (advisor) ; Sojka, Dan (referee)
For the successful food intake by organisms that feed on blood is essentials presence of antihaemostatic molecules such as vasodilators, anticoagulant molecules and apyrases., Although members of family Diplozoidae (Heteronchoinea) are blood-feeding parasites on the gills of the fish, these molecules, that could disrupt host hemostasis, have not yet been identified. Thus, the aim of this study was to find molecules with potential anticoagulant activity in homogenates of whole worm bodies and excretory/secretory products of the members of family Diplozoidae. Furthermore perform bioinformatics analysis of sequences obtained from transcriptom project of Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae) and selected proteins (protein domain) then expressed in a recombinant form. We tested inhibitory activity in excretory-secretory products and homogenates of members family Diplozoidae towards coagulation factors IIa and Xa and their specific fluorogenic with 4 negative and 1 positive results. From the results of two transcriptome analysis we discovered three protein families of potential anticoagulants - annexins, serpins and Kunitz-domain proteins. For further analyses we focused on the Kunitz protein family. These proteins contain one or more structurally related active domains which are able to...
Mixture theory applications in blood flow simulation
Michalová, Marie ; Hron, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Souček, Ondřej (referee)
In the beginning we outline some important properties of blood and de- scribe it from the biological point of view. In the next section we show how we derived our model based on the mixture theory. For the final model we suggest a mathematical method based on the finite element method and subject it to tests for flow in a simple domain. In the middle part we prove the existence of solution for a model with simplified constitutive relation for the stress tensor, which still includes an anisotropic model for the platelet diffusion. In the last section we show numerical results. We start with sim- ple testing computations in simple domains, followed by computations in a two-dimensional simulation of an aneurysm, and narrowed blood vessel re- spectively. In the end we also show some illustrative computations in three dimensions. 1
Determination of heavy metals in gread tits blood and feathers
Labancová, Katarína ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Nováková, Eliška (referee)
CZ Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá analýzou vybraných těžkých kovů (olovo, kadmium, měď, chrom, arsen) ve vzorcích krve a peří sýkor koňader (Parus major) metodou atomové absorpční spektrometrie s elektrotermickou atomizací a technikou generování těkavých sloučenin s detekcí křemenného atomizátoru. Za optimálních podmínek byla sestavena kalibrační závislost a zjistěné základní charakteristiky pro jednotlivé prvky. Klíčová slova Atomová absorpční spektrometrie, elektrotermická atomizace, chemické generovaní, těžké kovy, krev, peří, sýkora

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