National Repository of Grey Literature 115 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Geographical distribution of Piciforms' abundaces in Smrčina area, Šumava National Park
Souček, Michal ; Hořák, David (advisor) ; Riegert, Jan (referee)
The geographical distribution of Piciforms' is one of the factors indicating the state of the forest. These forest birds are bioindicators of climax forest communities. In Šumava National Park, some of the Piciforms' are flag species' and thanks to that, various historical data about them exist. The goal of my study was to evaluate data from 2006-2018 monitoring and add my own monitoring data from years 2019 and 2020. This data consists of location of individual birds living in the region called Smrčina, the southernmost point of the National Park. The goal of this thesis was to determine which factors influence the distribution. The method chosen for the monitoring was so called "point count method", used from the beginning of April till the end of June. For the statistical analysis, the R software was used. And for the visualization of geographical distribution, I used qGis. The result of my thesis is that from 10 Piciform species living in the Czech Republic, 8 live in the studied region. The abundance of Black Woodpecker and Great-Spotted Woodpecker from year 2006 and Three-Toed Woodpecker from year 2009 is stable. (Great- Spotted Woodpecker with 1,6, Black Woodpecker with 0,5 and Three-Toed Woodpecker with 0,8 pairs on one hectare.) The most rare species White-Backed Woodpecker was spotted...
Habitat characteristics accounting for the attractiveness of military training areas for birds: a case study from the Hradiště military training area
Hernová, Jana ; Reif, Jiří (advisor) ; Vojta, Jaroslav (referee)
Military areas are extraordinary biodiversity-rich due to limited economic activities and a specific way of using the areas for military training. Previous research has also revealed their positive influence on bird species diversity, this applies to endangered species in particular. However, the exact biotope characteristics attracting birds are insufficiently known. In this regard, I expected an important role of heterogeneity of the environment. The aim of the thesis was therefore: (I) to find out the difference of environmental heterogeneity between a military area (MA) and the surrounding landscape, both in a forest and a non-forest sites, (II) to find out what biotope characteristics attract birds in open landscape and (III) what characteristics attract birds in forest. Fieldwork took place in a still active MA of Hradiště and neighboring controls of Bochov and Ostrov. In total, 80 study plots were surveyed for representation of individual biotopes (39 types in total) and the number of fragments of woody vegetation. Data on bird species richness were taken from the thesis of Bušek (2015), surveyed birds at identical study plots and calculated total number of bird species and the number of endangered bird species at each plot. The open landscape of MA has, compared to the surrounding cultural...
Diversity and abundances of birds along altitudinal gradients of Cameroon Mountains
Dubský, Marek ; Sedláček, Ondřej (advisor) ; Reif, Jiří (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to describe the changes of bird species diversity along elevation gradient on six mounts in Cameroon and nearby Bioko island. The results of the analyses confirm most of the defined hypotheses, especially they show that species diversity declines with altitude and rises with area. Cluster analysis shows the similarity of individual mountains in particular altitude zones. Despite the original hypothesis, mount Cameroon is found to be most similar to mount Kupé, although high mountain assemblages of mount Cameroon and Bioko island are very alike as well. The absolutely highest diversity was detected on mount Cameroon and mount Kupé, but above 2100 m above sea level mounts Oku and Manenguba are the most diverse. The results of this thesis contribute to a clearer notion about factors influencing species diversity; however, more thorough data (particularly from mount Nlonako) and data extension for e.g. bird abundance would enrich the study and it would enable us to perform more detailed diversity analysis, especially an analysis of competition relationship among species. Key words Species diversity, Cameroon, bird assemblages, elevational gradient
Adaptive evolution of Toll-like receptors in birds
Velová, Hana ; Vinkler, Michal (advisor) ; Elleder, Daniel (referee) ; Novák, Karel (referee)
Adaptive evolution of Toll-like receptors in birds Hana Velová, PhD thesis 6 Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key and presumably also evolutionary most original components of animal immune system. As Pattern recognition receptors they form the first line of innate immune defence against various pathogens. The proper receptor binding of pathogenic ligands is crucial for their correct recognition and for subsequent triggering of an appropriate immune response. Because there exists a direct interaction between the receptor surface and the pathogenic ligand, host-pathogen coevolution on molecular level can be predicted. Thus, through variability of their ligands, TLRs are exposed to extensive selective pressures that may be detected on both genetic and protein levels. Surprisingly, the variability we revealed in birds is even higher than previously expected based on the reports from other vertebrates, mainly mammals. In my doctoral thesis I summarise the results of my contribution to the avian TLR research. We were the first who experimentally verify the absence of functional TLR5 in several avian species and duplication of TLR7 in others. We finally resolved the origin of duplication in TLR1 and in TLR2 family. An important part of my research project focused on the prediction of potentially...
Birds in Textbooks for Elementary Schools and Lower Grammar Schools (Analysis of the Graphic Design of the Chapter Birds with Focused on Model Species)
Vávrová, Anna ; Dvořáková, Radka (advisor) ; Poupová, Jana (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with the graphic processing of the chapter Birds (Aves) in natural science textbooks for teaching at elementary school or lower grammar school with a focus on the model species (hereinafter referred to as MS) used for the chapter. The focus on MS stems from the fact that the authors choose different taxa representatives from the taxon, they are not uniformly displayed or described. The theoretical part of the DT deals with the definition of a textbook and the possibilities of its analysis. In particular, research is described here, which focuses on the importance of graphic information in textbooks and misconceptions in pupils for the taxon birds. In the second part of the chapter I deal with the characteristics of the bird taxon. In the practical part of DT, my first goal is to map and analyze graphic information and its processing for the taxon birds (Aves) in natural science textbooks for primary and lower grammar school. The analysis involves the comparison of specific textbooks, the ways in which they are displayed, the ways of describing them in the text and other characteristics that relate to all general pictures that show important features of the group. Another aim of this part of DT is to describe and evaluate the MS for the bird tax (Aves), which would be...
Influence of external conditions on egg incubation in lapwings (genus Vanellus) in temperate and subtropical climate
Pešková, Lucie ; Šálek, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hořák, David (referee)
During incubation, most birds require the presence of at least one parent to ensure suitable incubation conditions for embryo development. The main factors that affect the development of the embryo are temperature, humidity and egg turning. In this work, incubation conditions were investigated in two biparental Lapwing species (genus Vanellus), the Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), which faces the risk of egg cooling in temperate areas, and the Red-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus), which faces the risk of egg overheating in the subtropics. A laboratory experiment testing the thermal properties of the Red-wattled Lapwing nest lining showed that it selects lining material that slows down temperature growth during egg heating, thus ensuring suitable thermal conditions during parental absence at high ambient temperatures. Temperature and egg turning during incubation were recorded by an artificial egg with a built-in sensors placed in the nests of both target species; data collected by the sensors were stored by a base-station located nearby. The average egg temperature was 32.5 řC for the Northern Lapwing, and 35.0 řC for the Red-wattled Lapwing. Egg temperature in both species fluctuated significantly, affected by many factors. Egg temperature increased with increasing ambient temperature, it...
Species traits and ecological conditions linked to bird colonisation of cities
Grünwald, Jan ; Reif, Jiří (advisor) ; Sedláček, Ondřej (referee)
Human settlements are a novel habitat type and species must respond to its ongoing expansion. For effective conservation of biodiversity, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying these responses. This thesis focuses on urbanization in birds, from both the individual and community perspectives. The aim of this thesis is to find out if there are any "pre-adaptations" in some bird species to be successful city dwellers or if all birds can potentially exploit the urban environment when local conditions allow. According to the reviewed literature, I conclude that the urbanization in birds is not a universal pattern, but there are some specific traits shared by most of the urban birds. The successful urban species are mostly omnivorous or granivorous, they breed in trees or in cavities and, they are often ecological generalists. They are sometimes represented by non-native species occurring in the cities all over the world.
Bird diversity and life-history patterns along gradients of productivity and its variation
Tószögyová, Anna ; Storch, David (advisor) ; Remeš, Vladimír (referee) ; Field, Richard (referee)
Geographical variability in species richness and life-history strategies shows remarkable and well-documented patterns generated by various processes that have not yet been fully revealed. However, the pronounced correlation between spatial patterns in species and trait diversity and spatial gradients in environmental conditions indicates that the environment may modulate these processes. The mechanisms related to environmental productivity (energy availability), as a strong predictor of biodiversity, have been hypothesized to explain the cause of these broad- scale biodiversity patterns. Still, there is no consensus in the explanation, as many of the environmental and biotic factors are strongly interrelated. We have derived testable predictions that allowed disentangling the mechanisms responsible for spatial distributions of life-histories and species richness. The patterns in spatial distribution of many avian traits across the striking productivity gradient in South Africa show a slow-fast continuum in life-history strategies. High environmental productivity in tropics may result in stable populations that favour slow life-history strategies; birds can utilize stable food resources - low food seasonality selects for small clutch sizes, long parental care and high juvenile survival. The...

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