National Repository of Grey Literature 33 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Inorganic analysis of microwave pyrolysis products from sewage sludge
Šintajová, Kristína ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of risk elements found in the sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants and the issue of contamination caused by sludge deposition in soils. Extractions of sewage sludge samples before and after pyrolysis treatment were implemented according to the sequential extraction of BCR and also using aqueous leaching. The determination of the selected element was performed on an atomic absorption spectrometer. A literature research on the use of modified sewage sludge after pyrolysis to increase fertility, improve soil properties and improve their quality was also processed.
Study of sorption properties of biochar
Kocinger, Oskar ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with sorption properties of biochar produced from wood biomass treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid and activated carbon with respect to the triazine pesticide propazine. Although pesticides are widely used in both agriculture and the private sector worldwide, they pose a significant risk to ecosystems and human health. Propazine belongs to the group of chlorinated triazine herbicides, which pose a risk mainly as endocrine disruptors. The sorption of organic pollutants using pyrogenic carbonaceous materials promises an efficient and economically affordable solution, which has recently received increasing attention from the scientific community. In this work, we used isotherms to describe the equilibria of propazine sorption to given sorbents during vial experiments. Analysis of the propazine content in the model water solutions after reaching equilibrium was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass detection.
The use of biochar as a sorption material for the removal of synthetic fragrances from water
Kašparová, Jarmila ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
Synthetic fragrances (musk) are artificially produced organic compounds. It is used as fragrance ingredient in personal care products. Substances from this group have the ability to withstand the cleaning process in wastewater treatment plants. The physico-chemical properties of musk compounds cause their accumulation in the living and non-living components of the ecosystem, where they behave as persistent pollutants. The adsorption process is considered to be one of the most widely used separation and purification processes. The adsorption processes of a solution of sixteen synthetic fragrances took place with biochar and activated carbon. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used as a method for extracting analytes. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for final analysis, time of flight analyzer was used as detector. The data were fitted with adsorption isotherms.
Determination of content of organic compounds in biochar
Novotná, Martina ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
Biochar is created during the pyrolysis of organic biomass. Once added into the soil, it can improve its features. Biochars made from sewage sludge have various compositions. It is because of the vast difference between entrance materials. Organic pollutants can be absorbed into its surface during the cooling proces sof pyrolysis. If released into the enviroment, these compounds can cause inhibition of plant growth, get into food chains and adversely affect living organisms. Organic pollutans are determined most often by GC/MS after organic solvent extraction.
Distribution of the Organic Matter in a Sample of Biochar
Novotný, Maximilián ; Enev, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This bachelor’s thesis is focused on characterization of the content and distribution of organic matter in a sample of biochar. For these purposes, the organic matter from a biochar sample was isolated using two procedures, specifically sequential chemical fractionation, and alkali extraction. Prepared samples were characterized by elemental analysis and thermogravimetry. Analysis results showed that sequential chemical fractionation brings higher yields than alkali extraction, moreover, it provides more detailed image of organic matter in biochar thanks to obtained separated fractions according to their linkage to the original biochar matrix. Secondly, studied biochar has a great potential as soil supplement, it contains almost 70 % of organic carbon, whilst isolated amount, which is available represent only small amount, the rest is strongly bound. On the other hand, the study showed that this specific biochar has rigid structure, which brings benefits in the context of using biochar in agriculture in long-term consideration.
Study on the Effect of Biochar Application on Organic Matter in Soil
Kurková, Marie ; Sovová, Šárka (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This bachelor thesis studies the effect of the application of biochar on the composition of organic matter of two different soil samples. Specifically, the total content of organic matter in the soil and the ratio of humic and fulvic acids in these soils before and after the application of biochar were monitored. The composition of the soil mass was also observed thermogravimetrically and by using the certified method of humic and fulvic acids isolation from samples of studied soils. Furthermore, the effect of biochar on the growth of a model plant (maize – Zea mays) was observed. From this point of view, differences in plant growth were possible to observe from the beginning of the experiment, both in comparison with samples with and without biochar and in comparison with samples containing different doses of biochar. The type of soil used for cultivation experiments also influenced on plant growth.
Preparation and basic chemical and physical characterization of biochar from wheat bran
Zouharová, Kamila ; Diviš, Pavel (referee) ; Pořízka, Jaromír (advisor)
At present, the extraction of biochar and its use is a much-discussed topic in the chemical and research fields. The use of biochar is very often declined in the areas of agriculture, waste management, environmental improvement and the fight against global warming. In addition to these sectors, the topic of biochar is also addressed in the production of bio-diesel and bio-oil. Due to the current use of secondary products during biotechnological processes, the presented theoretical and practical study focused on the issue of obtaining biochar from bran by pyrolysis at different temperatures. Part of the practical part was the extraction of biochar from bran and its subsequent analysis, which could be used to characterize biochar obtained from bran by pyrolysis physically and chemically. The characterization of bran biochar was solved by various analytical methods. These techniques yielded, for example, pH, conductivity, particle distribution, elemental composition of biochar, porosity and content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thanks to this study, the properties of biochar and its possible applications in everyday life were characterized in detail. Given the very promising use of biochar obtained from bran, it can be said that this will be a very desirable topic for the future.
Laboratory Pyrolysis Experiments of Pelleted Digestate (PS) and Extracted Sunflower Scrap (ES).
Pohořelý, Michael ; Skoblia, S. ; Beňo, Z. ; Hartman, Miloslav
In the report, there are results of laboratory pyrolysis analysis of pelleted digestate and extracted sunflower scrap.\n
Laboratory Pyrolysis Experiments of Pelleted Sunflower Harvesting Residues and Grain Harvesting Residues.
Pohořelý, Michael ; Skoblia, S. ; Beňo, Z. ; Hartman, Miloslav
In the report there are results of laboratory pyrolysis analysis of pelleted sunflower harvesting residues and grain harvesting residues.
Influence of pH on Extraction of Matter from Biochar-Soil Complex
Jakubčeková, Kristína ; Enev, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
Biochar is one of the possible solutions to improve the soil fertility, therefore it is necessary to investigate both its composition and the impact on the soil under various conditions. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to focus on the description of the influence of pH on the amount and type of substances (molecules, ions) that are leached from the biochar into the soil and thus consequently influence its properties. As a soil model it was chosen cambisol which is the most widespread soil in the Czech Republic. The selected pH values have been defined in such a way to cover the pH range that is common for various soil types in natural conditions. In the experimental part of this thesis the extracts from the used sample of biochar and soil were characterized first. These characteristics obtained in this way were subsequently compared with the data obtained for the biochar-soil complex extracts that was obtained after a defined period of cultivation of the mixture. For the characterization of extracts the basic physico-chemical methods (pH, conductivity, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis, UV-VIS) and also the analysis of leached ions and molecules by means of ICP/OES, GC-MS were used. Evaluated experimental data show that under the condition of cultivation experiments, the influence of biochar was observed only on the basic physico-chemical characteristics of the soil (mainly pH). On the other hand, there was no significant tendency of the impact of biochar on the representation of selected elements and on the content of organic matter in the soil. Long-term biochar-soil cultivation experiments could be a suitable solution.

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