National Repository of Grey Literature 33 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Preparation and characterization of lignin modified by laccase enzyme
Hrušková, Lucie ; Obruča, Stanislav (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This master’s thesis focuses on the enzymatic modification of commercially available lignin using laccase enzyme and monitoring its impact on selected physical and chemical properties. Lignin is an attractive material for the production of renewable chemicals, materials, and energy, but its complex chemical structure poses a major obstacle to its effective utilization. Enzymatic modification appears to be a promising solution for its processing. Experiments were conducted under various conditions, such as pH, enzyme dosage, and reaction time. In the subsequent part of the experiment, the modified lignins were characterized and their results compared with those of the raw kraft lignin before modification. Molecular weight was determined using SEC-MALS, and the concentration of phenolic groups and antioxidant activity were measured. Structural changes were also monitored using FTIR. The results indicate that the enzymatic modification of lignin using laccase led to an increase in the molecular weight of the modified lignins, along with a decrease in the content of phenolic groups and a reduction in antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the action of the laccase enzyme resulted in lignin polymerization and the formation of new chemical bonds, leading to further aggregation.
Diaphragm discharge in organic dye solutions
Pajurková, Jana ; Možíšková, Petra (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
This Diploma thesis was focused on the degradation of dyes Saturn Red L4B (Direct Red 79) and Saturn Blue LB (Direct Blue 106) by DC diaphragm discharge (DC-DD). Supplied power was between 160 and 180 W. Conductivity and pH were changing at each electrode area during the DC diaphragm discharge, therefore the effect of pH and conductivity changes on the dye solution itself were examined. All samples were measured by UV-VIS spectrometer in the wavelength range of 300–800 nm. No significant dependence of dye absorption spectra on conductivity was observed, while pH significantly affected the absorption curves of dyes. Ageing of dye spectra showed significant changes of Saturn Red L4B. Next task was the comparison of dyes destruction efficiency by DC-DD, audiofrequency diaphragm discharge (AF-DD) and electrolysis. Dye decomposition by AF-DD was not observed at set conditions (voltage of 80–120 V, current of 2.2 A and frequency of 2 kHz). In the case of DC diaphragm discharge the electrolysis played an important role. Decomposition efficiency of the dyes by electrolysis was up to 15 %. The pumping effect in the DC diaphragm discharge was also investigated. Although the individual electrode areas were linked only by a small pinhole in a nonconductive barrier (the pinhole diameter of 0.3 mm), solutions of the anode and cathode compartment interacted with each other up to 10 %. Finally, the degradation products of Saturn Red L4B treated by DC-DD in two electrodes parts are also described. Decomposition products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with the mass spectrometer.
Native hyaluronan as a delivery system for hydrophobic drugs
Černá, Eva ; Mravec, Filip (referee) ; Pekař, Miloslav (advisor)
The aim of this paper is to discover whether it is possible to use the native form of hyaluronic acid as a hydrophobic drug carrier for a targeted distribution in the body. In its structure, hyaluronic acid is a linear high molecular weight biopolysaccharide which is found in most living organisms. Hyaluronan is involved in many physiological processes and therefore is essential for the functionality of the human body. It is in most tissues of the human body, high concentration is in the skin, the vitreous body and is also observed in cancer cells that contain several receptors for hyaluronan. These receptors include CD44 and RHAMM. The interaction of the hyaluronic acid delivery system and the hydrophobic medicinal with these receptors could ensure a free passage for drugs to the affected tissue, where the release of the drug would destroy the affected cells. The drug would directly target the damaged tissue and did not burden the rest of the body like the cytotoxic agents do. In this paper the native form of hyaluronic acid, which we normally find in the human organism, was chosen as the carrier. Its properties do not stand above other carrier systems, but its biocompatibility and biodegradability in the body greatly exceed them. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid was used as a carrier and the hydrophobic dye sudan red G, a substance of similar properties, was used instead of a hydrophobic drug.
Optimizing the determination of distribution of surfactant at phase separation in polymer-surfactant system
Sátorová, Kateřina ; Pekař, Miloslav (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This diploma thesis is focused on the determination of distribution a surfactant at phase separation in polymer-surfactant system. Sodium hyaluronate of three molecular weights was chosen as a polymer, CTAB was used as a surfactant. The experiments were performed in an environment of 0,15 M NaCl. The measurement of the CTAB concentration in samples was based on the formation of coloured complexes of CTAB and picric acid in chloroform. UV-VIS spectroscopy was used for the detection of these complexes. The content of CTAB was determined in four gels of different composition (2% Hya + 200 mM CTAB, 2 % Hya + 50 mM CTAB, 0,5 % Hya + 200 mM CTAB, 0,5 % Hya + 50 mM CTAB). All gels were gradually washed five times with 0,15 M NaCl. The content of CTAB was determined for newly prepared gels and for gels after 2 and 4 months since the preparation. Initial concentrations of CTAB and hyaluronan have greater influence on the distribution of CTAB after phase separation, than the molecular weight of hyaluronan. The content of CTAB in newly prepared gels and after 4 months since preparation is very similar and demonstrates the stability of the system.
Diaphragm discharge in organic dye solutions with focus on electrolytic decomposition
Davidová, Jaroslava ; Brablec, Antonín (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
This Diploma thesis is focused on physical and chemical effects which contribute to the decomposition of organic dyes by diaphragm discharge generated in water solutions. Due to the application of DC high voltage source in continuous regime, there is an effect of electrolysis contributing to the dye decomposition by diaphragm discharge. The aim of this work was to find out when the electrolysis is running (or when is the moment of discharge breakdown) and which factors influence the breakdown. The other goal was decomposition of selected textile and food organic dyes by electrolysis itself. In the theoretical part, theory about creation of electrical discharges in aqueous solutions is noted and various types of underwater discharges are described. Background researches about underwater electrical discharges used in the world are mentioned as well as the use of diaphragm discharges and various ways how to remove organic dyes from wastewater. Finally, theories of electrolysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy and basis of other analytical methods useful for detection of organic molecules are described. Experimental part is oriented to experiment procedure which was carried out in a reactor with separated electrode areas. Separation was made by dielectric diaphragm with a pinhole in the centre. Its initial diameter was 0.4 mm. Used chemicals and course of experiments are described in this part, too. First, the breakdown moment in the reactor was investigated (i. e. determination, when only electrolysis was operating) by formation of hydrogen peroxide and measurement of dynamic (time resolved) electrical characteristics. Next, decomposition of selected dyes by electrolysis was carried out. As the decomposition was related to decolorization of the solution, UV-VIS spectroscopy in the range of 350–700 nm was used for determination of dye concentration. Next part focused on results presents various factors which had an effect on breakdown of diaphragm discharge. These factors are kind of used electrolyte, initial conductivity of solution, kind of dye, temperature of solution and type of reactor (or solution volume). From the result, the most important factor is initial solution conductivity. After the determination of the breakdown moment, the electrolysis of organic dyes was performed. The applied current was 10 mA, initial conductivity was 500 µS/cm and used electrolyte was NaCl. Moreover comparison of dye decomposition in dependence on the different applied power was realized. From this comparison one can assume, there is no significant contribution of electrolysis (the efficiency is approximately 15 %) to the diaphragm discharge in aqueous solution.
Influence of photochromic additives on the optical and electrical properties of polymer matrices
Tumová, Šárka ; Toman, Petr (referee) ; Weiter, Martin (advisor)
This thesis is focused on the photochromic molecule of spiropyran, which changes its structure as well as physical and chemical properties after UV irradiation. These changes are reversible, the molecule thermally restore its initial structure. For the study, the molecule SP1 with the systematic name 1',3'-dihydro-1',3',3'-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro[2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-(2H)-indole] was used. This molecule was incorporated within polymers PVK, Tg PPV, PCBTDPP and PCDTBT and the method of UV-VIS spectroscopy was used to observe the photochromic activity within these matrices. The influence of matrices to the ability to undergo UV induced photochromic conversion as well as to the reverse conversion to the initial structure induced by heat was monitored. Furthermore, the influence of spiropyran to the electrical properties of individual matrices was studied. The effect of photochromic conversion to both, the mobility of charge carriers and to the photogeneration was observed. For this purpose, the method of current-voltage measurement was used.
Dialysis study of hyaluronan-surfactant interactions
Šejnohová, Michaela ; Venerová, Tereza (referee) ; Pekař, Miloslav (advisor)
This diploma thesis is concentrated on the interactions between polyelectrolyte (hyaluronan) and cationic surfactant (CTAB). The experiments were performed in an aqueous solution and in an environment of physiological ionic strength (0,15mmoldm-3 NaCl). The determination of the surfactant concentration in solutions was based on the formation of colored complexes of CTAB and picric acid in chloroform. The concentrations of surfactant were measured by UV-VIS spectroscopy. The stability of CTAB+HyA was examined by a dialysis method. The results showed that, regardless of the environment, the presence of HyA in solution reduces the number of free molecules of CTAB which can be determined in the sample. It has been proved that there is an interaction between HyA and surfactant and that CTAB has greater affinity for HyA then for the picric acid. The stability of CTAB+HyA was determined by dialysis of 120 hours. After that time, the concentrations of the retentate and permeate were settled. The results showed that in the membrane remains a certain amount of CTAB bounded to hyaluronan. The system can be suitable for the preparation of targeted carriers of biologically active substances.
Study of optical properties of thin films of organic photovoltaic cells
Čuboň, Tomáš ; Schmiedová, Veronika (referee) ; Zmeškal, Oldřich (advisor)
This master´s thesis is focused on measurement of optical properties of thin layer of materials used in organic solar cells (OSC). The usage of graphene oxides and its reduced forms as parts of hole transport layer (HLT) in OSC were studied. At the beginning of the thesis, there is described basic theory necessary to understand the optical properties of thin layers. The thin layer deposition and reduction of GO are discussed too. The experimental part is aimed to the optical characterization of prepared thin films. The results from optical microscopy, UV-VIS spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were obtained. At the end of the thesis, the results are concluded and compared with already published literature.
Study of influence of organic dye structure on their decomposition in the diaphragm discharge in liquids
Pajurková, Jana ; Fasurová, Naděžda (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
The main goal of presented thesis is to study the influence of organic dyes structure on its degradation in diaphragm discharge in liquids. Diaphragm discharge is a kind of non-thermal plasma that can be generated in liquids by the application of high voltage. In plasma channels (so-called streamers), many physical and chemical processes are formed. High electrical field, shock waves and last but not least emission of electromagnetic waves in the range of visible and ultra-violet radiation appear among physical processes. The most important chemical process is generation of active species. These species initiate chemical reactions and could attack molecules of organic compounds contained in water solution. The reason why organic dyes were chosen in this study is its visible destruction, because it is related to its decolouration. Further, UV-VIS spectroscopy for the determination of concentration during the experiment can be used. Organic dyes are good models of organic substance often contained in waste water and for which removal classical biological, chemical and physical methods aren’t sufficient. Selected dyes were mostly from the group of azo-dyes: Acid Red 14, Acid Red 18, Acid Yellow 23, Direct Blue 53, Direct Red 79, Direct Red 80, Direct Yellow 29, Food Yellow 3 and further, Acid Blue 74 (indigotic dye) and Direct Blue 106 (oxazine dye). Experiments were carried out in a special batch discharge reactor with the anode and the cathode spaces divided by a non-conductive barrier, where the diaphragm with a pin-hole was placed. Measurement showed different removal in the anode and cathode space. We have supposed it was caused by different streamers features and energetic conditions. Dyes were decomposed with higher efficiency in the anode space where the final concentration reached 40 % of the initial concentration while it remained about 90 % in the cathode space. In this thesis the influence of dyes structure on the dye decomposition by electrical discharge was investigated. Dyes consisted of small molecules and dyes with many substitutes bounded on aromatic ring were decomposed more easily than dyes consisted of big molecules. The shift of characteristic wavelength on both directions (to shorter as well as longer wavelength) was observed during the experiments especially when the Direct dyes were decomposed. This phenomenon was probably due to the formation of intermediate product, which have different characteristic wavelength than the primary compound. In general, colourfulness is given by long conjugated systems of double bonds with substitutes bounded on an aromatic ring. Each change in the molecule structure provides the colour change and this could be the possible reason of the shift of characteristic wavelength. The other task was the comparison of degradation process efficiency by the mean of electrolysis and diaphragm discharge. Results showed that electrolysis (30 W) was more convenient for degradation of dyes consisted of small molecules while diaphragm discharge (130170 W) suited for complex molecules. For degradation of small molecules, oxidation on the anode assumed to be the most effective process that is initiated by electrolysis. For degradation of big molecules, attack of active species produced by the discharge is necessary.
Study of electrolytic influence on organic dye decomposition in the diaphragm discharge in liquids
Davidová, Jaroslava ; Rašková, Zuzana (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
This Bachelor thesis is focused on study of chemical and physical influences which are proceed in diaphragm discharge in water solution. These processes could be used in water treatment. If DC non-pulsed voltage is applied, a significant influence of electrolysis must be taken into account. The main goal of this thesis is the estimation of electrolytic contribution to processes in the discharge. Theoretical part describes basic theory about creation of electrical discharges in water and electrolysis with emphasis on processes leading to destruction of organic compounds. Production of reactive particles (radicals, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, etc.) and electrochemical reactions on electrodes mainly belongs among these processes. This part describes analytical method (UV-VIS spectroscopy) which was used for determination of organic dyes concentration as well. Experimental part is oriented to experiment procedure which was carried out in an apparatus with separated anode and cathode area. Separation was made by dielectric diaphragm with a pinhole in the centre. Its initial diameter was 0.25 mm. Electrolytic decomposition was carried out at constant current of 30 mA and supplied power was about 14–32 W. Two Saturn dyes (Direct Blue 106 and Direct Red 79) were selected for experiments. As the decomposition was related to decoloration of the solution, UV-VIS spectroscopy in the range of 350–700 nm was used for determination of dye concentration. Next part focused on results presents various factors which had remarkable effect on decomposition of organic dyes. These factors were: various polarities of electrodes, conductivity and pH of solution, applied power, kind of electrolyte and structure of organic dye. The electrolysis had the significant influence on decomposition of small organic molecules. Decomposition was running mainly in the anode area where so called negative discharge was created. Optimal conditions were set by NaCl electrolyte with concentration providing initial conductivity of 500 S·cm-1. By the NaNO3 electrolyte half decomposition efficiency was achieved and in Na3PO4 electrolyte, the decomposition even didn’t run. The decomposition in the anode area was stimulated by the low pH value, which was decreasing during electrolysis. Generally, higher decomposition was achieved by the discharge than by pure electrolysis but the electrolysis had higher efficiency. In pure electrolysis, high rate of removal can be achieved by the application of a relatively low power. When bigger organic molecules were decomposed, the efficiency was higher by applying the discharge.

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