National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Mechanisms of resistance and iron metabolism in cancer stem cells
Lettlová, Sandra
(EN) Analogously to normal stem cells within the tissues, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to be responsible for maintenance and growth of tumours. CSCs represent a small fraction of cells within the tumour, which is characterised by self-renewal capacity and ability to give rise to a tumour when grafted into immunocompromised mice. Cells with increased stemness properties are believed to be responsible for tumour resistance, metastases formation and relapse after tumour treatment. The first part of this work concentrates on resistance of the tumours, which is often associated with increased expression of ATP-binding cassete (ABC) transporters pumping chemotherapeutics out of the cells. For the purposes of this study, we utilized an in vitro model of CSCs, based on cultivation of cells as 3D "spheres". Expression profiling demonstrates that our model of CSCs derived from breast and prostate cancer cell lines express higher mRNA level of ABC transporters, particularly ABCA1, ABCA3, ABCA5, ABCA12, ABCA13, ABCB7, ABCB9, ABCB10, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC5, ABCC8, ABCC10, ABCC11 and ABCG2 among the cell lines tested. The protein level of ABC transporters tested in breast CSCs showed higher expression of ABCB8, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC10 and ABCG2 but downregulation of ABCB10 and ABCF2 proteins....
Tumor in vitro chemosensitivity and resistance assays (CSRA) using flow cytometry
Drozdová, Tereza ; Drbal, Karel (advisor) ; Balounová, Jana (referee)
In vitro chemosensitivity and resistance assay determine the sensitivity of a specific tumor after a specific treatment administration in an experimental setup. A heterogeneous population of cancer cells is exposed to various approved anticancer drugs in short-term ex vivo and their combination thereof. The effect of each drug is then determined based on the viability of specific tumor cells allowing for individual patient treatment using a precise combination of drugs. This approach is an example of the personalized medicine principle, which is focusing on the adjustment of diagnostic procedures and treatment of a specific patient. Therefore, its goal is to avoid treatment failure in patients with poor response to the statistically most effective treatments based on randomized clinical trials. The number of viable cells determined by the flow cytometry provides very accurate statistics for multiparametric analysis. A necessary prerequisite is the presence of dissociated cancer cells in a single cell suspension. This is different from cloning methods, where tumor colonies grow on agar media, or from histocultures, which are specific with its three-dimensional tissue cultivation. We can also sort cells from suspension based on their pre-defined attributes for their subsequent functional testing. The...
Mechanisms of resistance and iron metabolism in cancer stem cells
Lettlová, Sandra ; Truksa, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Kovář, Jan (referee) ; Brábek, Jan (referee)
(EN) Analogously to normal stem cells within the tissues, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to be responsible for maintenance and growth of tumours. CSCs represent a small fraction of cells within the tumour, which is characterised by self-renewal capacity and ability to give rise to a tumour when grafted into immunocompromised mice. Cells with increased stemness properties are believed to be responsible for tumour resistance, metastases formation and relapse after tumour treatment. The first part of this work concentrates on resistance of the tumours, which is often associated with increased expression of ATP-binding cassete (ABC) transporters pumping chemotherapeutics out of the cells. For the purposes of this study, we utilized an in vitro model of CSCs, based on cultivation of cells as 3D "spheres". Expression profiling demonstrates that our model of CSCs derived from breast and prostate cancer cell lines express higher mRNA level of ABC transporters, particularly ABCA1, ABCA3, ABCA5, ABCA12, ABCA13, ABCB7, ABCB9, ABCB10, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC5, ABCC8, ABCC10, ABCC11 and ABCG2 among the cell lines tested. The protein level of ABC transporters tested in breast CSCs showed higher expression of ABCB8, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC10 and ABCG2 but downregulation of ABCB10 and ABCF2 proteins....
Study of mechanism of action of anticancer drug tamoxifen and its toxic side effects
Kylarová, Salome ; Stiborová, Marie (advisor) ; Moserová, Michaela (referee)
Anti-estrogen therapy is used for treatment of hormone (estrogen) receptor positive breast cancer. The rise of this type of cancer is associated with a prolonged exposure to these hormones throughout life. Tamoxifen is one of the most used hormonal drugs, which blocks the effects of these hormones in breast cancer tissue by competitive binding to hormonal receptors. The affinity of tamoxifen to these receptors is not sufficient, therefore it has to be activated to metabolites having greater affinity, namely 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen. The formation of these intermediates is catalysed by cytochromes P450. In the second phase of its biotransformation hydroxylated metabolites of tamoxifen are primarily sulphated by sulphotransferases and eliminated from the body. In addition to these active intermediates, which inhibit the growth of breast tumor tissue, there are metabolites causing negative effects in the others. The most important metabolite is α-hydroxytamoxifen, which forms covalent DNA adducts in liver tissue of rats and endometrium of females. Tamoxifen therapy is associated with numerous side effects, but the greatest attention is focused to formation of endometrial cancer and induction of tumor's resistance to this therapy. Effects of tamoxifen therapy are dependent on the activity of...

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