National Repository of Grey Literature 645 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Association of fatty acid composition in serum and / or adipose tissue lipids with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in obese subjects of different age categories
Metelcová, Tereza ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Štich, Vladimír (referee)
Obesity is a chronic disease that is caused by many factors. Excessive adipose tissue is involved in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Prevention of cardiometabolic risks includes lifestyle arrangement, including an increased intake of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In additional to lifestyle factors, genetics factors also significantly contribute to influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In study A, we monitored 670 subjects (336 girls and 334 boys). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FADS1 gene (rs174546, rs174537) was assessed using real-time PCR and then we determined the spectrum of fatty acids (FAs). The results show that SNPs in the FADS1 affect the efficiency of synthesis by affecting the activity of delta 5 desaturase. Abnormal FAs composition can affect cardiometabolic health. Study B examined a cohort of 215 individuals (131 women and 84 men) who participated in both rounds of the Childhood Obesity Prevalence And Treatment (COPAT) project. The individuals were divided into two groups: BMI≤25 kg/mš and BMI≥25 kg/mš. This model was evaluated regardless of sex because the variable sex did not correlate significantly with the variable weight status. The percentage of adipose tissue was used as the second parameter. The second parameter...
Molecular mechanisms linking adipose tissue dysfunction and atherosclerotic complications
Kratochvílová, Helena ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Bužga, Marek (referee) ; Cibičková, Ľubica (referee)
Obesity and its associated comorbidities increase the risk of mortality. The development of subclinical inflammation associated with obesity also plays a significant role in this. In our work, we focused on changes in the endocrine and mitochondrial function of adipose tissue and their relationship to cardiovascular complications. The first part of the thesis focuses on determining the expression of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum genes in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue, intercostal muscle or right myocardial atrium in patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Patients with coronary artery disease had reduced expression of several mitochondrial chain genes in epicardial adipose tissue compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue and other tissues, while no change in endoplasmic reticulum gene expression in the above-mentioned tissues has been demonstrated. Based on decreased mitochondrial gene expression in patients with coronary artery disease, we conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction of epicardial adipose tissue may contribute to the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The second part of the thesis is focused on neudesin, new potentional regulator of energy metabolism, in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who underwent various weight reduction...
Mechanisms of comorbidity of metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases
Tauchman, Martin ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Brožka, Hana (referee)
In Czechia, number of people with neurodegenerative diseases is in the hundreds of thousands, and the lifetime health care costs and social impact of each patient's disease reach hundreds of thousands of euros, but these costs could be reduced by early and effective intervention. Its correct implementation could be helped by knowledge of causal links between neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, whose prevalence is correlated in the population. One of the important factors is an increased pro-inflammatory immune response. In people with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation evolves into neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to neurodegeneration. Another mechanism is hyperglycaemia, which is a consequence of insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia lead to impaired expression of glucose transporters and insulin-degrading enzyme, resulting in reduced clearance of amyloid beta. Genetic background is also recognized as a highly influential factor, affecting various mechanisms in both beneficial and harmful ways. Lifestyle is also an important factor. In general, smoking and alcohol consumption are harmful to health. Both increased consumption of alcoholic beverages and smoking tobacco products can lead to metabolic disorders as well as neurodegeneration. On the...
Adipose etrogenisation and other anthropological aspects of obesity
Novák, Jan ; Sedlak, Petr (advisor) ; Bezdíček, Ondřej (referee) ; Bendlová, Běla (referee)
This work presents an anthropological view of obesity. It introduces the concept of adipose estrogenization and describes its relationship to pelvic morphology. Further, secular changes in the prevalence of latent obesity, the consequences, and the etiology of this condition are described. The work also validates tools for assessing chronotype, subsequently associating these metrics with sociodemographic factors, including obesity. The key part of this project present study focused on changes in the morphology of the bony pelvis in the context of pubertal history of obesity. It is a longitudinal study (n = 238) with an anthropometric examination after 8 years and an estimation of sex hormones. The main observation was that adult men with a history of obesity had more gynoid (relatively wider) pelvic bone morphology and altered levels of sex hormones, i.e., reduced testosterone levels and an increased relative proportion of estradiol to testosterone, i.e., estrogenization. This was manifested with habitual pelvic feminization, which serves as a marker of estrogenization and a retrospective marker of obesity. In the context of this study, a Letter to the Editor is added as a correction to the publication, interpreting these findings as a possible explanation for the shorter second stage of labor in...
The role of orexins in food intake and chosen pathological phenomena
Zelená, Anna ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Balounová, Kateřina (referee)
Orexins are neuropeptides produced in the lateral hypothalamus in the brain and peripheral organs. These neuropeptides are essential in regulating arousal and energy balance. They also participate in the reward system and secure water homeostasis. Orexins bind to the orexin receptors differently expressed in various tissues. The binding of orexins to their receptors couples with downstream signalling pathways, e.g., Ca2+ , diacylglycerol and protein kinase C pathways. Low concentration of adenosine triphosphate leads to the inactivation of orexin-expressing neurons and the reduction of energy expenditure. On the contrary, high intracellular concertation of adenosine triphosphate activates energy expenditure. Food intake is regulated by orexins and glucose, sirtuin 1, forkhead box transcription factor 2, and leptin. This thesis aims to find connections between the role of orexins in regulating food intake and the development of some pathological phenomena, e.g., hypertension, obesity, and anorexia nervosa. Keywords orexin, obesity, anorexia nervosa, glucose, insulin, stress
The influence of the Media on the Lifestyle of Teenagers
Richterová, Karolína ; Wolák, Radim (advisor) ; Lütke Notarp, Ulrike (referee)
This thesis examines the impact of media on adolescents' lifestyles, more specifically on two aspects of lifestyle, namely physical activity and sleep. Within the Covid-19 pandemic period, individuals were forced to stay in their homes, and all their social contact, as well as school and work obligations, shifted to the online environment. With this, screen time also increased, as did the associated sedentary behaviour. As they were all forced to be isolated, sports and leisure activities were also very limited or often also transferred to the online environment. The aim of this thesis is therefore to try to define the habits of adolescents in terms of physical activity, sleep and media consumption, and how these aspects are interconnected, and whether adolescents perceive this interconnection. The aim was also to provide some education to the individuals, where they were then confronted with recommendations for particular aspects of lifestyle (sleep and physical activity), but also recommendations regarding media consumption. As lifestyle was strongly influenced by the Covid-19 disease pandemic, the aim was also to see how individual students' habits changed within this period, but also afterwards. Within the framework of this work, qualitative research was conducted. Using in-depth interviews...
Effect of Exercise on Lipid Metabolism in White Adipose Tissue
Gazdová, Tatiana ; Horáková, Olga (advisor) ; Tauchmannová, Kateřina (referee)
Obesity and old age are more prevalent among the current human population than ever before. Increased fat accumulation and hormonal dysregulation are common hallmarks of both these states. It is well reported that both states are associated with impaired lipolysis and glucose homeostasis as a result of disrupted metabolic pathway signalling. Current research offers exercise as a possible remedy, which could improve substrate handling in obesity and old age. Increased energy expenditure, myokine production, and improved insulin sensitivity are all potential benefits of exercise that could mitigate the health risks associated with obesity and ageing. In this work we aim to explore the effect of acute endurance exercise protocol on lipolytic activity of visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots of lean and young, obese, and aged mice. By the addition of forskolin, isoproterenol, and insulin into the explant media we hope to assess the functionality of β-adrenergic signalling in our subjects. Post exercise lipolytic rate, measured as non-esterified fatty acid release, increased in both depots in all test groups. Glycerol release did not follow the same pattern. Additionally, lipolytic rate, measured as non-esterified fatty acid release, in visceral adipose tissue was higher in samples from...
Evaluation of resting energy expenditure and body composition in obese patients
Jílková, Anna ; Matoulek, Martin (advisor) ; Zelinka, Tomáš (referee)
Introduction: The basis of obesity treatment is a conservative regimen based on a reduced diet and physical activity, individually set for each person. As the obese often show extreme deviations in body composition compared to individuals of normal weight, it is often difficult to determine their energy needs or determine their energy expenditure. The gold standard for determining resting energy expenditure (REE) is examination using indirect calorimetry (IC). This method can also detect deviations from the calculations of predictive equations, determine the degree of adaptation of the individual to low energy intake, and thus set the appropriate therapy. Objectives: The main objective of the work is the analysis and description of data on body composition and resting energy expenditure values of selected groups of obese individuals whose REE measurement results using indirect calorimetry reached a level below 95 % of the predicted REE calculated using the Harris Benedict (H-B) equation. The sub-goals are to describe the dependence of the size of some components of body composition on the size of the REE and to find out if the deviations between the number of the total measured REE and the REE calculated using H-B in the adapted group are significant. Methodology: For the research 71 patients of...
The role of nutrition and physical activity in breast cancer patients
Kafková, Tereza ; Matoulek, Martin (advisor) ; Tesařová, Petra (referee)
Introduction: In most countries in the world, breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer diagnosed for women. A key factor that positively influences the prognosis of patients is physical activity, ideally supported by nutritional intervention. Adequate physical activity has a beneficial effect on increasing overall fitness and prolonging life of patients in the metastasis stage, especially in the subgroup of HER2+ patients. Furthermore, physical activity also improves the mental condition of patients. Aim: The aim of this research is to describe the effect of nutritional and physical exercise intervention for generalized breast cancer patients. The effectiveness of the interventions evaluated was based on the data from body composition measurements and the physical fitness test that was performed for the patients. Methodology: Data for this research was collected as a part of the ONKO-FIT program, which was created in co-operation with the Oncology Clinic of the General Teaching Hospital in Prague and the 1st Faculty of Medicine. The duration of this program was set for 3 months. The program was executed by 24 patients. Data was completely collected and evaluated for 13 of those patients. The patient's age range was from 39 to 57 years, with an average of 47 ± 6 years and the time since...
The effect of a weight loss on bone and energy metabolism in premenopausal women with obesity
Malinová, Pavlína ; Zikán, Vít (advisor) ; Michalská, Dana (referee)
Introduction: Current findings show that obesity may not only have a protective effect in terms of the osteoporosis development. Although higher mechanical load on bones in obese people increases bone mass density, inflammatory cytokines produced by adipose tissue, on the contrary, increase bone resorption. The reduction of body weight itself can contribute to the deterioration of the quality of bone mass. Aim: The main aim of the study was to evaluate changes in BMD and selected parameters of body composition during a 2-month strict very low-calorie diet (VLCD) and a subsequent 4-month low-calorie diet (LCD) in premenopausal women with obesity. Methods: The study was carried out at the workplaces of the III. Internal Clinic of the General University Hospital in Prague and the Institute of Endocrinology in Prague. Data were collected in the period from April 2021 to May 2023. 11 patients participated in the study with dietary intervention, data was processed from 10 of them. The average age was 44.1 ± 9.3 years, the average weight was 94 ± 10.4 kg. The control group consisted of 14 patients, 10 of them were included in the study. The average age in the control group was 40.7 ± 6.4 years, the average weight was 64.4 ± 7.5 kg. Patients of the intervention group were given a very low-calorie diet with...

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