National Repository of Grey Literature 31 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Coexistence of plant species in fragmented landscape
Semi-natural grasslands are hotspots of biodiversity in the present-day landscape. The thesis focuses on various effects and processes affecting plant species coexistence at two different scales. At the local scale, the effects of management and fertilization were assessed in relation to abiotic gradients and species functional traits. At the landscape scale, the patch spatial configuration, land use and plant functional traits may influence species distribution. The diversity pattern in fragmented landscape is also modified according to availability of suitable patches and landscape heterogeneity.
The solution of anti-erosive protection for the model catchment area Jenín
URBANOVÁ, Michaela
Target of the thesis is examination and evaluation of water-erosion influence on farmlands in the catchment of the Jenín brook. In the case of heightened erosive washes it should to suggest anti-erosive measures. In practical section a calculation of erosive washes trough the use of the Wischmeier-Smith equation is presented. This calculation evidences excessive erosive wash just about 60 % of area. Because of this reason the following options of anti-erosive measures were suggested: option Nr. 1 - the rotation of crops with one intercrop; option Nr. 2 - the rotation of crops with two intercrops and Nr. 3 {--} the delimitation of plantation {--} a change of the arable land on the grassland. For these measures the erosive wash was calculated. In results the calculations and evaluation of particulars options of erosive measures are presented. In the end the evaluation of all outcomes in relation to existent land use is concluding.
Status of soil organic carbon and changes in soil organic matter in Novohradsko
The aim of the diploma thesis was to evaluate the content of soil organic carbon in the area of Novohradsko. Soil organic carbon was monitored in its stable (SOC) and labile (WSOC) form, followed by the total organic carbon stock (Cpool). These soil parameters were determined in soils of different land cover types (forest, arable land, grassland) in the area formed by the catchments of Pasecký, Bedřichovský, Váčkový and Veverský stream. Data obtained in 2001, 2007 and 2014 were statistically analysed and the comparison of the data from different catchments was conducted. The results show the impact of different land use on the amount of soil organic carbon. In general, a higher amount of soil organic carbon were found in soils of grassland and forest soils, whereas a lower amounts were found in arable land. The comparison and the time development analysis show that there is a trend of the increase in quantity of stable fraction of soil organic carbon in all categories of land cover over the whole monitored period. The opposite trend of a continuous decrease over the whole of the monitored period in all categories of land cover was observed in amounts of labile fraction of soil organic carbon. It can be said that there is an increase in the stock of a stable fraction of soil organic carbon due to lower losses of the labile fraction of soil organic carbon in forest soils, arable soils and soils of grassland.
Influence of land cover and altitude on soilmoisturespatio-temporal variability
Šípek, Václav ; Hnilica, Jan ; Tesař, Miroslav
An understanding of spatial and temporal variation of soil moisture is essential for studying other hydrological, biological or chemical soil processes, such as water movement, microbial activity and biogeochemical cycling (Bruckner et al., 1999, Ridolfi et al., 2003). Although the world-wide total amount of water stored in the soil profile is negligible compared to ocean and glacier storages, it represents a crucial variable concerning the water resources and agricultural management. This is valid especially in the context of ongoing shift in climate. Soil water exhibits a tremendous heterogeneity in space and time (Gomez-Plaza et al., 2000). Therefore, spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture have always been the critical issue. The spatial variability is influenced by variety of factors encompassing the topographical effect on lateral water redistribution (Williams et al., 2003), radiation (Grayson et al., 1997, Geroy et al., 2011), soil texture and structure (Famiglietti et al., 1998, Pan and Peters-Lidard, 2008), vegetation (Teuling and Troch, 2005), climate (Lawrence and Hornberger, 2007), precipitation pattern (Keim et al., 2005) and antecedent soil moisture (Rosenbaum et al., 2012). The land use influence on the soil moisture content variation is of complex a character covering several above mentioned factors. However, it is determined namely by the different vegetation cover, which results in different rates of interception and transpiration. It also strongly influences the soil hydraulic properties, i.e. hydraulic conductivity and water retention characteristics (Zhou et al, 2008). Hence, the reaction of an area to a rainfall and also the temporal variability of the soil moisture content might be influenced by the present land cover. Nevertheless, the studies comparing the influence of several land covers in the longer periods are missing. This knowledge would be valuable especially in the context of extreme climatic events that are present nowadays. In central Europe, the period of major floods (1997, 2002, 2013) was followed by serious dry spells (2003, 2011–2012, 2015) (Trnka et al., 2015). This observed hydrological extremity raised the questions of sustainable water management. One of the possible management practices in consideration is represented by the land cover changes intended to hold more water in the landscape and simultaneously to attenuate the rainfall-runoff response. Moreover, previous studies have investigated that spatial and temporal variation of soil water under a certain land use type, and drawing significant research attention is lacking on the differences of dynamics of soil water conditions under different land use types. Thus, it is necessary to understand the comparisons of the dynamics of soil water conditions under different land use types (Niu et al., 2015) The main aim of the presented study is therefore to understand the soil moisture variability in the vegetation season under four different land covers (coniferous/deciduous forest, meadow, grassland). This analysis is conducted in five consecutive years, encompassing both dry and wet periods. The influence of altitude is also studied in the coniferous forest.
Methods used to study the effects of grazing on vegetation
Hyklová, Lucie ; Münzbergová, Zuzana (advisor) ; Šlechtová, Anna (referee)
Calcareous grasslands are one of the most diverse habitats of Northern and Central Europe. Most of the calcareous grasslands were created by human agricultural activities and therefore they need some kind of management for their long-lasting maintenance. These habitats have been vanishing during last few decades and that's why there were many experiments provided all around the world to examine possible ways of their restoration and preservation. Grazing of livestock has been a traditional management in many places and is often being investigated nowadays. The aim of this work is to search and compare methods that are used to experimentally study the effects of grazing on vegetation. These experiments use different methods although they usually have the same goal - high species richness. Most of these studies are from Great Britain, Germany and states of Northern Europe. Average length of the experiment is seven years. Key words: grassland, grazing, management, restoration, methods, species richness
The influence of way and intensity of grassland exploitation on fodder value and biomass production
BĚLÍK, Michal
The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate the methods and intensity of use of grasslands that have an impact on the value of the forage and biomass production. The analysis of the selected four sites with different types of management. They chose two meadows and pastures two, of which one pasture is used in a combined manner.
The current condition of soil organic matter in Stropnicko selected sites
The main objective of this thesis was to determine the current status of soil organic matter (SOM) in the Stropnice River basin based on the collected soil samples. SOM is a major source of carbon in the soil. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the samples was measured using the FORMACSHT TOC / TN analyser, as well as the additional module PRIMACSMCS (fa Skalar - CARBON Instruments Ltd.). The values measured in 2014 were compared according to the land use (woodland, grassland, arable land) and the depth of sampling (A: 0-15 cm, B: 15 - 30 cm, C: 30 - 45 cm). Furthermore, these values were compared with values from 2001 and 2007. The highest SOC concentration was found in the upper layers of forest soils, grassland soils showed lower SOC content, whereas the arable land showed the lowest amount of SOC. Over the time, depletion of SOC is evident for all categories of land use.
Recovery of a submountainous meadow after cessation of fertilizing
Královec, J. ; Prach, Karel
After fertilisation had stopped in 1989, the average number of species per 1 m2 increased four times in the most fertilised plots. However, the number of species also increased in the unfertilised controls, which we attribute to the observed recovery of the whole surrounding landscape. Species typical of mesic grasslands predominantly contributed to this increase. Spontaneous recovery of previously overfertilised mesic grassland may thus work in central European landscapes if seed sources are available nearby. In such cases, no expensive restoration measures are needed to reduce soil nutrients and/or to sow seeds of target species.
The senzorical evaluation of quality of fodder grassland biomass by different way of conservation
Bachelor thesis in the first part deals with the characteristics of prominent legumes and grasses, their importance in the cultivation of coarse fodder. Describes methods of harvesting and conservation of grassland biomass. Sensory, nutritional and technological quality of coarse fodder. Factors that affect it and its importance in livestock nutrition. It also deals with technological processes in the production of hay and silage from grassland, causes impaired their quality and their impact on the income of livestock. The second part of the thesis is focused on the sensory quality evaluation conserved forage in different ways of preservation - haybales, hay and silage in silagepits on land of agricultural cooperative Opařany.
Significance of quarries for the conservation purposes of Central European spider \kur{Eresus} spp.
Selected quarries and adjacent areas of xerophilous grassland in Bohemian karst were examined for the presence of velvet spider burrows. Selected microhabitat valuables were collected and their significance for ladybird spider analyzed.

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