National Repository of Grey Literature 33 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Regeneration abilities among vertebrates
Majerová, Veronika ; Starostová, Zuzana (advisor) ; Soukup, Vladimír (referee)
Among vertebrates the ability to regenerate various body structure, from the cellular level to diverse internal organs or even the complex body structures (such as limb or tail), is unequally distributed across animal taxa. Regeneration is understood as the restoration of damaged or completely lost tissues, while the restored structure is more or less similar or even identical to the original structure. Regeneration is naturally often preceded by an encounter with a predator, when the animal is directly injured by the predator or an autotomy may occur as an anti-predator mechanism, which means that the animal voluntarily releases an appendage. Autotomy and following regeneration have many advantages but there can also appear some costs associated with these events which may have various consequences Masters in regeneration are considered to be mainly urodele amphibians who are able to perfectly regenerate various body structures (such as eye lens, limb or tail) and this ability persists throughout their lives, unlike anuran amphibians, in which the ability to regenerate after metamorphosis decreases significantly. In contrast to amphibians, the ability to regenerate among mammals or birds is severely limited. The aim of this work is to approach the ability of regeneration and the mechanisms by...
Regeneration of heart muscle in vertebrates
Bergelová, Barbora ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Mašek, Jan (referee)
The model organisms like for example the fish Danio rerio has the ability to regenerate heart muscle during its whole lifespan. Compared to Danio rerio, the ability of heart regeneration differs in amphibians. While the newt has the ability to regenerate its heart tissue throughout its whole life, the Xenopus leavis loses its power when it goes through metamorphosis. The regenerative ability does not only differ between salamanders and claws. We can observe some differences between regeneration of Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus leavis too. Compared to Xenopus leavis, Xenopus tropicalis has the ability to regenerate its heart tissue even in adulthood. Mammals have a very limited ability to regenerate their heart muscle. We can observe the ability to reverse heart damage in mice and humans for a very limited time of a few days after they are born. In adulhood they repair the heart muscle and the rich collagen scar is formed. It is vital that signaling pathways in regeneration of model organisms is researched further, so that the knowledge gained may help us in the treatment of heart injuries in humans. Key words: regeneration, heart muscle, repair, zebrafish, mammals, amphibians, heart development, vertebrates
The effect of salting the highway D8 in the winter months: Results of species composition and abundance of water organisms in streams during vegetation season in year 2018.
Blabolil, Petr ; Kučerová, Andrea ; Matěna, Josef ; Rychetský, P. ; Peterka, Jiří
The focus of the study is to document the effect of chloride toxicity on aquatic organisms (macrophytes, aufwuchs, macrozoobenthos, fish and amphibians) in recipients around the D8 motorway, km 48.276 - 64.689, where the motorway passes through the České středohoří Protected Landscape Area. The summary of the achieved results for the vegetation season 2018 is the content of the presented report.
The effect of salting the highway D8 in the winter months: Results of species composition and abundance of water organisms in streams during vegetation season in year 2019.
Blabolil, Petr ; Kučerová, Andrea ; Matěna, Josef ; Bešta, Tomáš ; Rychetský, P. ; Peterka, Jiří
The focus of the study is to document the effect of chloride toxicity on aquatic organisms (macrophytes, aufwuchs, macrozoobenthos, fish and amphibians) in recipients around the D8 motorway, km 48.276 - 64.689, where the motorway passes through the České středohoří Protected Landscape Area. The summary of the achieved results for the vegetation season 2019 is the content of the presented report.
Occurence and diversity of amphibian trypanosomes
Poloprutská, Klára ; Votýpka, Jan (advisor) ; Brzoňová, Jana (referee)
The genus Trypanosoma represents well-known flagellates of order Trypanosomatida and class Kinetoplastea, which includes over 500 described species parasitizing on all classes of vertebrates. However, the best known and economically and medically most important are mammalian trypanosomes, especially human ones, which cause serious diseases in the world: sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America. But trypanosomes may also be found in blood of birds, reptiles, fish and amphibians. And exactly on trypanosomes of amphibians, whose diversity is surprisingly vast, is this thesis focused. However, many studies concentrate only on morphological description, which may not be the best in order to determine species, which may lead to distortion of information e.g. about species' life cycle, prevalence or host specificity. This thesis points to some ambiguities, but also to some more reliable experimental or in some cases molecular evidence dealing with individual aspects of life of trypanosome of amphibians. It also summarizes representatives of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate vectors of trypanosomes, among which leeches are considered to be the dominant vector in aquatic environment. Furthermore, some species of phlebotomes, mosquitoes and genus Corethrella are known to be...
Cellular and molecular basis of a skin regeneration in amphibians and mammals
Hybešová, Michaela ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Jendelová, Pavla (referee)
Wound healing of skin in mammals and its regeneration in Amphibians are crucial biomedicine topics in the last few decades. The most important aspect in humans is the scrarring proccess and the effort to substitute it with the regeneration producing functional and differentiated tissues. To modulate the formation of scar it is neccessary to compare both proccesses. The core animal model is axolotl (Caudata) where regeneration takes place during whole lifespam. On the other hand, in frogs (Anurans) this phenomenon is restricted up to metamorphosis. After metamorphosis, the immune system of Anurans is similar if compared to mammals. Similarly, the transition from early embryonic development in mammals, where the fetus was able to completely regenerate damaged tissue to an adult type of healing, goes hand-in-hand with the development of the immune system and structural differentiation of damaged tissue. Thus, the inflammatory cells and their regulation, the formation of ECM, which includes fibroblast proliferation, and the production of appropriate cytokines are key factors that distinguish the process of healing with and without scarring.
Hunting mechanism and visual perception of prey in amphibians
Košinárová, Lucie ; Frýdlová, Petra (advisor) ; Černý, Rudolf (referee)
Visual perception holds the dominant position among other senses in amphibians. It provides vital information about any potential prey or predators in the surrounding area. Any information, gained through optical sensors, is then directly evaluated in brain, activating different behavioral reactions: prey catching or predator avoidance behaviour. Decision is based on individual parameters of stimuli. In case of identifying a prey stimulus an innate behavior pattern is activated. There are many prey catching strategies in amphibians. Their selecting may vary due to many aspects including food preferences, mechanical constraints or a phylogenetic position of the species. Habitat may also have an influence over hunting strategy or even morphological characters of species, mostly regarding their oral system. Tongue plays an important role in almost every prey catching movement in terrestrial and also in some aquatic amphibians. There are different types of tongue elongation in amphibians that are divided into several categories, which can affect the hunting strategy for each species. Apart from creating a summary about visual perception and hunting mechanisms, this thesis includes a mapping of different types of tongue elongation on a phylogenetic tree of amphibians. The main goal of this task is to find a...
The response of Marsh Frog (\kur{Pelophylax ridibundus}) to the presence of alien predators
KROUFKOVÁ, Michaela
This study focuses on the antipredator strategies of amphibian larvae in relation to some of their predators. Namely, the relationship between the larvae of the marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) and the invasive species of the fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva). Latter part of the experiment involves investigation into the relationship between another non-native species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Both are non-native species of small fishes. The topmouth gudgeon was introduced unintentionally in the 1980s from Hungary. It is listed on the Black List of the Czech Republic and it is on the list of invasive non-native species of the EU Regulation (1143/2014), (Kuřátko, 1998; Poláková et al., 2016). The three-spined stickleback was brought into our territory from America. It was probably released into local ponds by Czech aquarists at the beginning of the 20th century. It is a species that is not listed on the Black List of the Czech Republic, but its negative impact on fish fry has been previously documented (Poláková et al., 2016). Both species have been known for a negative impact on the biological diversity of our fauna, but the influence of these predators on our amphibians has not so far been documented. The experimental part investigates the damage of tadpoles caused by these non-native fishes and the defensive strategy of the tadpoles. The tadpoles were provided with a hiding place as one of the possible escape strategies against the predator.
Amphibians - the Meaning for Men and their Use in School Education
Vajnar, Tomáš ; Hanel, Lubomír (advisor) ; Andreska, Jan (referee)
This work contains a research on the class amphibia and evaluate the relationship between man and amphibians (morphology, physiology, biology, etology, bioindiation, threat and conservation of amphibians, myths, toxikology etc.). Amphibians are analyzed as a model group with respect of using them in educational praxis (model group of animals in education of biology, zoology, ecology, etology, nature protection, literature etc.). Exotic species are choosed as examples, which are best for care in schools. Here are made also manuals for breeding of selected less demanding species in aquarium or aqua-terrarium conditions and for observing their life histories.

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