National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Mechanisms of resistance and iron metabolism in cancer stem cells
Lettlová, Sandra
(EN) Analogously to normal stem cells within the tissues, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to be responsible for maintenance and growth of tumours. CSCs represent a small fraction of cells within the tumour, which is characterised by self-renewal capacity and ability to give rise to a tumour when grafted into immunocompromised mice. Cells with increased stemness properties are believed to be responsible for tumour resistance, metastases formation and relapse after tumour treatment. The first part of this work concentrates on resistance of the tumours, which is often associated with increased expression of ATP-binding cassete (ABC) transporters pumping chemotherapeutics out of the cells. For the purposes of this study, we utilized an in vitro model of CSCs, based on cultivation of cells as 3D "spheres". Expression profiling demonstrates that our model of CSCs derived from breast and prostate cancer cell lines express higher mRNA level of ABC transporters, particularly ABCA1, ABCA3, ABCA5, ABCA12, ABCA13, ABCB7, ABCB9, ABCB10, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC5, ABCC8, ABCC10, ABCC11 and ABCG2 among the cell lines tested. The protein level of ABC transporters tested in breast CSCs showed higher expression of ABCB8, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC10 and ABCG2 but downregulation of ABCB10 and ABCF2 proteins....
Mechanisms of resistance and iron metabolism in cancer stem cells
Lettlová, Sandra ; Truksa, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Kovář, Jan (referee) ; Brábek, Jan (referee)
(EN) Analogously to normal stem cells within the tissues, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to be responsible for maintenance and growth of tumours. CSCs represent a small fraction of cells within the tumour, which is characterised by self-renewal capacity and ability to give rise to a tumour when grafted into immunocompromised mice. Cells with increased stemness properties are believed to be responsible for tumour resistance, metastases formation and relapse after tumour treatment. The first part of this work concentrates on resistance of the tumours, which is often associated with increased expression of ATP-binding cassete (ABC) transporters pumping chemotherapeutics out of the cells. For the purposes of this study, we utilized an in vitro model of CSCs, based on cultivation of cells as 3D "spheres". Expression profiling demonstrates that our model of CSCs derived from breast and prostate cancer cell lines express higher mRNA level of ABC transporters, particularly ABCA1, ABCA3, ABCA5, ABCA12, ABCA13, ABCB7, ABCB9, ABCB10, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC5, ABCC8, ABCC10, ABCC11 and ABCG2 among the cell lines tested. The protein level of ABC transporters tested in breast CSCs showed higher expression of ABCB8, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC10 and ABCG2 but downregulation of ABCB10 and ABCF2 proteins....
Expression and regulation of the ABC transporters in tumour cells
Tomková, Veronika ; Truksa, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Němcová, Vlasta (referee)
Estrogen signalling pathway plays crucial role in carcinogenesis of breast cancer. Estrogen receptor (ER) is a prototypical hormone receptor that upon binding its ligand, estradiol, translocates into the nucleus and turns on target genes related to cellular proliferation and survival. Although estrogen signalling physiologically supports normal breast tissue development, deregulations of this pathway contribute to development of breast tumours that are estrogen receptor dependent. One of the main obstacles in breast cancer treatment is acquired resistance to common anticancer drugs also known as multidrug resistance (MDR). The switch between chemotherapy responsive to chemotherapy resistant cell phenotype is usually accompanied by increased expression of ABC transporters, special membrane proteins responsible for export of various kinds of commonly used anticancer drugs from the intracellular to extracellular space and is also linked to the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). ABC transporters can not only export chemotherapeutic drugs but may modulate tumour microenvironment through the transport of endogenous intracellular substrates such as leukotrienes (LTs), sphingolipids and prostaglandins PGs). This function may also play important role in carcinogenesis. The aim of the thesis was to...
The influence of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters on the incidence of colorectal cancer and chemotherapy outcome
Krus, Ivona ; Souček, Pavel (advisor) ; Králíčková, Milena (referee) ; Hodis, Jiří (referee)
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies and affects approximately 5% of worldwide population. More than 75% of CRC cases represent sporadic forms. Susceptibility to nonhereditary CRC is significantly influenced by polymorphisms and mutations in low-penetrance genes. Variations in biotransformation and DNA repair genes may result in acumulation of toxins and DNA damage in cells leading to the development of cancer. Furthermore, different gene expression profiles of membrane transporters affecting the accumulation of anticancer drugs in tumour cells, e.g. ABC drug transporters, may largely influence inter-individual variability in drug response and chemotherapy outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of genetic and lifestyle factors in the risk of onset and progression of colorectal cancer. This study followed selected genetic alterations in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, NQO1 and EPHX1) and genes involved in response to DNA damage (CHEK2 and NBN), as potential CRC susceptibility factors. Another aim of this study was to investigate expression profile of all human ABC transporter genes to follow their prognostic and predictive potential in colorectal carcinoma. Materials and methods: The polymorphisms and other...
Význam rostlinných proteinů z podrodiny ABCB pro transport auxinu
Kubeš, Martin ; Zažímalová, Eva (advisor) ; Hejátko, Jan (referee) ; Reinöhl, Vilém (referee)
Polar auxin transport provides essential directional and positional information for many developmental processes in plants. At the cellular level, it is realized by both passive diffusion and the active transport through the membrane proteins - AUX1/LAXes, PINs and ABCBs. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the role of ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCB19 proteins in polar auxin transport using transformed tobacco BY-2 cell lines. It was shown that the plasma membrane (PM) localization of the ABCB1, 4 and 19 is not polar. The ABCB4 was also more stable on PM after the treatment with auxin influx inhibitors; making use of ABCB4-cell line helped to uncover new characteristics of markers of endocytosis - the FM- dyes. The induction of ABCB19 has led to a decrease in 3 H-NAA accumulation with characteristic auxin starvation phenotype, similar to PIN7 overexpressing cell line, that could be rescued in case of PIN7 cell line by application of the auxin efflux inhibitor NPA; however, the accumulation of auxin in ABCB19-overexpressing cell line was less sensitive to NPA and the rescue of the auxin starvation phenotype was ineffective. Importantly, unique property of the ABCB4 was demonstrated: It displayed dual, auxin-concentration-dependent auxin transport activity in Arabidopsis roots, tobacco BY-2 and yeast cells. The...
The effect of aminoacid variability on the resistance phenotype in ARE subfamily of ABC proteins
Lenart, Jakub ; Balíková Novotná, Gabriela (advisor) ; Fišer, Radovan (referee)
ARE subfamily proteins belonging to ABC transporters confers a different degree of resistance to macrolides, linkosamides and streptogramins antibiotics. Among the most clinically ARE subfamily proteins in staphylococci is Vga(A) protein lead to the award resistance to streptogtramins A. In 2006, discovered the new variant called the Vga(A)LC, which in addition to streptogramins A resistance also confers linkosamides. Vga(A) and Vga(A)LC differ in only 7 amino acids, yet confer different resistance phenotypes. In previous experiments it was found that the central role in determining substrate specificity play a 4 amino acid differences that accumulate in the section of 15 amino acids within the linker connecting the two ABC domains (positions 212, 219, 220 and 226). The combination of amino acids LGAG Vga(A) increases resistance to streptogramins A while present in combination SVTS Vga(A)LC increased resistance to linkosamides. Although in this subfamily includes a large number of resistance proteins, the mechanism of resistance has not yet been established with certainty. The aim was to create a new Vga(A) variants that contain specific combinations of amino acids for Vga(A) and Vga(A)LC protein at positions 212, 219, 220 and 226 and compared their ability to grant resistance to linkosamides. We also...

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