National Repository of Grey Literature 35 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Olfaction-mediated behavioural defence mechanisms in humans
Schwambergová, Dagmar ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Croy, Ilona (referee) ; Polák, Jakub (referee)
This thesis consists of two parts. The first part introduces the importance of behavioural defence mechanisms, specifically the behavioural immune system and mainly in humans. I review current knowledge regarding behavioural defence mediated by odour cues. Although behavioural defence mechanisms are important for all individuals who live in social groups, I focus on mate choice, because that is the context in which olfaction-mediated behavioural defence is studied the most. Subsequently, the importance of olfaction is demonstrated using the example of self-inspection and I discuss how the behavioural immune system may be intertwined with this relatively understudied behaviour. Finally, last chapter deals with associations between olfaction and other modalities that play a role in the detection of cues which help select a healthy and immunocompetent partner. In the second part of the thesis, I present nine papers: three reviews and six empirical studies. The review papers summarise the functioning of the behavioural immune system, olfaction- mediated pathogen avoidance in mammals, and the merely weak association between attractiveness ratings based on different modalities. The first empirical paper investigates whether the threat caused by the Covid-19 pandemic led to increased perceived disgust,...
Laboratorní test disasortativního párování u hraboše polního - literární rešerše
BÍLKOVÁ, Pavlína
Petrásková P. (2019): Laboratorní test disasortativního párování u hraboše polního - literární rešerše [Laboratory test of disassortative pairing in the common vole - literature search. Bc. Thesis in Czech]-49 pp. , Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic. The aim of this work is to use the literature research to map current knowledge about the effect of odour preference on reproductive success in mammals focusing on voles. As assortative pairing is referred to each form of non-random pairing. Most of the time is meant a situation in which individuals who have similar phenotypes pair more often. The opposite is the situation where individuals with different phenotypes pair more often. This is sometimes referred to as negative assortative or disassortative pairing. In particular, this study deals with non-random pairing among to body odour . These are mainly linked to genes for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in animals, which play a key role in the immune system. MHC gene products found in various body secretions form the specific odour of each individual. In the research part were searched question for following questions: How is the breeding partner chosen? Is Assortative or Disassortative Pairing More Frequent? What information does body odour convey? What channels is the odour information transmitted and received? How is odour preference testing solved in laboratory conditions? In the practical part, a plan of the experiment is presented in which T-labyrinth will play the main role in determining the odour preference. Under laboratory conditions, voles will have plenty of time to complete the process
Perception of individual variation in body odour in human adults
Fialová, Jitka ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Schaal, Benoist (referee) ; Stopka, Pavel (referee)
The thesis consists of two parts. The first part introduces the topic of human chemical communication and reviews current evidence on individual variation in human body odour and its perception. This part is framed by sexual selection theory. In the first chapter, the concept of the theory of communication is introduced followed by a discussion on the specifics of chemical communication. Next, the formation of individually specific body odour signatures with reference to skin glands, their volatile products and the subsequent metabolization by skin microflora is described. The next chapters are dedicated to selected interindividual body odour cues such as sex and kin recognition, genetic compatibility in genes of Major Histocompatibility Complex, and health and reproductive status in a mate choice context. Furthermore, interactions between perfumes and body odours are discussed. Finally, methods of body odour sampling are introduced and a rationale behind presenting individual samples or body odour blends is discussed. The second part is comprised of six scientific papers, specifically three reviews and three empirical studies. Review papers summarize factors affecting human body odour quality with emphasis on diet and affective states. The first text shows that human body odours contain cues to...
Methodology development of the olfactory perception of children with visual and multiple disabilities
Pařízková, Linda ; Šumníková, Pavlína (advisor) ; Květoňová, Lea (referee)
This thesis deals with importance of olfactory perception and possibilities of its development between the children with visual and multiple disabilities. It provides basic information about anatomy and physiology of olfaction, about processing of olfactory stimuli and about the importance of smell for children with visual and multiple disabilities. The main attention is focused on possibilities of olfactory perception development in the Czech Republic, which is presented by a comprehensive summary of the products available on the Czech market. It also deals with the development of the olfactory perception at the School of Jaroslav Ježek.
Association between human body odour and health status
Schwambergová, Dagmar ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Vinkler, Michal (referee)
The subject of this thesis is to evaluate a link between changes in body odor and health status in humans. The main aim was to create a theoretical overview of the available studies concerning humans, which are compared with studies conducted on mammals. Alteration of body odor due to the ongoing disease may negatively influence not only the odor attractiveness of a potential partner, but also may cause changes in behavioral response to a chemical stimulus for other members of the species. One may assume formation of perceptual adaptations exhibiting sensitivity to markers of health status in both sexes. Recognition of ill individuals may be crucial during social interactions, to prevent transmission of pathogens, but in mate choice the health status may also serve as an important indicator of resistance to infection, which can affect the viability of the offsprings. The main contribution of this thesis is to summarize the knowledge and insights into the area related to changes in body odor, depending on the health status. Keywords body odor, health, sexual selection, attractiveness, olfactory perception
Sexual dimorphism in the mouse olfactory system
Kuntová, Barbora ; Stopka, Pavel (advisor) ; Havlíček, Jan (referee) ; Žídek, Lukáš (referee)
Sexually dimorphic behaviour of the house mouse (Mus musculus musculus) relies on various physical and chemical cues, however, chemical signals are the most essential cues for individual recognition and in causing various priming effects on reproductive behaviour of the receiver. House mice belong to macrosmatic mammals, and thus, their sense of smell is highly developed and is able to recognize a wide spectrum of ligands from other individuals and from their surrounding environment. Volatile signals belong to organic compounds that are produced by most tissues, and may have harmfull effects on cells, and thus they are transported out of the body with lipocalin transporters where some of them may function as signals. These volatile signals are able to stimulate chemosensory neuronal receptors, and thus, yield particular responses in neural circuits. The ligand sensing has a differential effect upon males and females, however, it has not been shown yet in wild mice whether these differences are also caused by the variation in receptors and neural processing, or rather by differential expression of signals typical for each sex. The aim of this thesis was to perform comparative analysis of orofacial mucosal tissues to determine the specificity of expression of particular lipocalins. For the first time...
Evolution of olfactory receptors
Klempt, Petr ; Stopka, Pavel (advisor) ; Vinkler, Michal (referee)
This bachelor thesis deals with the largest gene family of mammals which encode olfactory receptors. Olfactory receptors fall in rhodopsin-like GPCRs subfamily, approximately 600 - 800 millions of years old. At least from this time, olfactory receptors play, as a part of one of the oldest senses (smell), fundamental role in detection of chemical cues from water or air. This work summarizes large repertoire of olfactory receptors and its changes during the evolution of important animal taxons with emphasis on number and fraction of functional and nonfunctional olfactory receptor genes. Those values are part of criteria used for olfactory ability of animals. Olfactory receptors are typically placed on surface of sensory neuron placed in olfactory epithelium, where they bind various odorants and triggers signal cascade which leads to neuron's membrane depolarization. Therefore, about one half of this work summarizes knowledge of olfactory receptor's molecular biology like their structure, main parts of signal cascade (Gαolf, ACIII, CNG channel, Ca2+ dependent Cl- channel) just as parts needed for steady-state establishment. Expression of olfactory receptors detected in amount of non-olfactory tissues (mussels, sperm, brain etc.), indicate possibly important biomedical roles of this receptors.
Role of body odour in partner relationship
Černý, David ; Kuncová, Lucie (advisor) ; Martinec Nováková, Lenka (referee)
Body odor is a good guide in mate choice, because it contains information such as the kinship, emotional state, or health condition of an individual, a person is able to perceive this information to a certain extent. The individual factors that affect the body odor will subsequently influence the preferences for the body odor as well. Those preferences are applied especially when seeking for a partner and at the beginning of the relationship. At the same time, however, it turns out that body odor affects even the process of partnership and the end of it. In the context of relationships and olfactory communication in humans, especially in the context of sexual life, the effect of pheromones is often discussed, which is the subject of the last chapter. The aim of the work is to gather and critically evaluate existing studies dealing with the role of body odor in the partnership and to suggest possible directions for further research. Keywords: smell, pheromones, partner preferences, mate choice

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