National Repository of Grey Literature 260 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Cooperation on Climate Change as a Pillar of the Relationship Between the United States and China
Jandus, Lukáš ; Hornát, Jan (advisor) ; Bečka, Jan (referee)
Cooperation on climate change in the second term of president Obama showed to have potential for improvement of the relationship between the United States and China. This paper analyses how the climate change cooperation developed and concludes that under right circumstances it has positive influence on the bilateral relationship. In order to make the improvement more lasting, the climate change cooperation should take into account national security considerations, specifically the parties should collaborate and jointly exercise on humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations.
Food Security and Machine Learning: Opportunities and Challenges
Hruška, Adam ; Špelda, Petr (advisor) ; Plattner, Simon Antonin (referee)
The emergence of the effects of global warming, as well as the ongoing depletion of fossil fuels and fertile soil pose a serious threat for the future of the agricultural industry. Alternatively, the continuous population growth mainly in the less developed regions highlights the future need of approximately 70-110 percent increase in the overall output of contemporary food production. While the current conventional agriculture deploys a multitude of technologies including the precision agriculture framework, the future needs of the population exceed the projected capabilities of the industry. Machine learning as the current fastest growing technology represents the potential remedy for the emerging issues, yet the extent of successful implementation remains uncertain. The thesis aims to uncover the potential future implications of implementation of machine learning based technology in agriculture through the use of the new scenario building methodology. The analysis builds on a varying set of empirical data, current state of art projects in machine learning and multiple future trend projections. Albeit the scenario building technique allows for a potentially endless number of constructed scenarios, the thesis concentrates on three main plot lines. First scenario tackles the more probable...
Hydrological drought in the context of climate change: Case study of the Blšanka and Loděnice basins
Burian, Alois ; Janský, Bohumír (advisor) ; Hanel, Martin (referee)
The final thesis deals with the issue of hydrological drought in the context of climate change. The basins of the Blšanka River and the Loděnice River have been suffering from water shortages in recent years, therefore they have been selected for the purposes of this final thesis. The thesis summarizes the basic principles used to estimate climate change on the water resources with emphasis on the occurrence of hydrological drought. At the same time, individual components and processes of hydrological modelling conditioning the formation of affected time series in the near (2020-2050) and far future (2070-2100) are described. A total of sixteen simulations created from the seven global climate models (GCM) of the CMIP5 project and three climate scenarios (RCP; Representative Concentration Pathways) are used. The time series of precipitation and air temperature, which have been influenced by the climate change, were derived by an advanced delta method that counts also with the change of variability. The conceptual hydrological model BILAN is used to simulate changes, due to its availability from the T. G. M. Research Institute of Water Management and its wide use in Czech conditions. The parameters of the BILAN model are calibrated based on the observed time series of both selected river basins....
The impact of coronavirus crisis on the media coverage of climate change topic in Czech daily newspaper Mladá fronta Dnes
Hlinka, Ivan ; Osvaldová, Barbora (advisor) ; Zunová, Anna (referee)
The coronavirus crisis has affected the way of life on the planet. Due to the speed and intensity with which it has spread, it earned a lot of media attention. This space was given to it at the expense of other, less attractive topics. The bachelor's thesis focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on media coverage of climate change. Using the quantitative content analysis, relevant articles from 2019 and 2020 were examined. The first chapters represent the theoretical basis and insight into the issue. They deal with climate change and climate extremes, the coronavirus crisis, including its course in the Czech Republic, and describe the basic concepts of media theory that are necessary for a proper understanding of the topic of this thesis. The methodology chapter sets out the objectives of this work, research questions, and procedures. The last two chapters present the obtained data and answers to the research questions. The result of the analysis was that the coronavirus crisis negatively affected the articles dealing with the topic of climate change. In absolute numbers, there was a decrease in almost all examined categories. The only exception was the average length of the articles, which increased by 7.8%. In 2020, the number of published relevant articles decreased by 41.5%...
Influence of temperature on the shifts in sexuality of gynodioecious species Stellaria graminea (Caryophyllaceae)
Krtilová, Eliška ; Slovák, Marek (advisor) ; Macková, Lenka (referee)
Sexual polymorphisms represent an essential phenomenon in the evolution and reproduction of flowering plants. One of the types of sexual polymorphisms is gynodioecy, a phenomenon in which a plant species forms morphologically and functionally hermaphrodite, but also female individuals. However, the stability of sexuality expression of both types can be influenced by environmental factors, what might, finally, lead to shifts in sexuality (from hermaphrodites to females and vice versa). These changes are often very dynamic and can have a significant positive but also negative effect on genetic variability and overall fitness of the species. The main content of the work will be the elaboration of a research on the given topic which will contain chapters focused on sexual polymorphisms in flowering plants, gynodioecy, the influence of environmental factors on the lability of sexual expression and its effects on genetic variability and overall survival of species. An important part will also be the inference of the potential impact of climate change on fitness and survival of sexually polymorphic plant species. The theoretical part of the work will also focus on the model species selected for subsequent master's thesis, specifically Stellaria graminea. It is a perennial polyploid species inhabiting the...
Ecological Effects of Climate Change on Snakes
Veverková, Barbora ; Sedláček, Ondřej (advisor) ; Frýdlová, Petra (referee)
Climate change is currently one of the biggest threats that animal species must face. Increasing temperatures cause declines in wildlife populations all around the world. Ectothermic animals might be amongst the most threatened organisms by climate change due to their ecology that makes them dependent on ambient temperature. As ectotherms, snakes will most likely need to adapt to new climatic conditions, or they become extinct. To escape raising temperatures and decreasing precipitation, snakes might shift their ranges and move into more suitable areas. However, snakes have a low dispersal ability, which might lead to range reduction and in some populations even extinction. Climatic changes might affect health and behaviour of snake species as well. Increased temperatures can alter incubation period and embryonic development. Alterations in embryonic development and reduction of incubation period can cause different kinds of malformations, especially in oviparous snakes. These malformations can negatively impact fitness, depending on their severity. Some snake species might also benefit from climate change. Elevated temperatures allow snakes to be more active and, in some cases, even shorten hibernation duration. Snakes are also able to better escape predators in high temperatures than in low...
Effects of Climate change on root dynamics in temperate forests
Růžičková, Kateřina ; Bouda, Martin (advisor) ; Stiblíková, Pavlína (referee)
Fine roots contribute significantly to the global carbon and water cycle. Their dynamics and changes that may occur are therefore key players in these processes. Climate change significantly affects the dynamics of fine roots, and since individual factors are in interaction and may also function against each other, the overall response of the root system to climate change is difficult to predict. However, understanding these processes is essential for creating more accurate models to predict the response of ecosystems to a changing climate. This bachelor's project is a literature review that summarizes the knowledge about the effects of elevated temperature, CO2 concentration and drought on the dynamics of fine roots in temperate forests. Also, it provides a comprehensive view of the interaction of all three factors and considers some issues open for further research.
Snow drought and its importance for runoff in the context of changes in climatic and snow characteristics
Hlavatý, Vojtěch ; Jeníček, Michal (advisor) ; Nedělčev, Ondřej (referee)
Snow drought, defined as a lack of snow accumulation, is one of the consequences of increasing air temperature, which has a considerable impact on the runoff generation as it provides a substantial part of water supplies in the warm season. However, the attention to snow drought has been paid mainly to North America. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the current state of research on this topic and to analyze data from the Churáňov station in the Šumava Mountains. Long-term trends in climatic and snow characteristics in the period 1966-2017 were described using linear regression and Mann-Kendall test and relationships between them were examined by correlation coefficients. Consequently, the occurrences of snow drought were classified using different approaches. According to the results, the main cause of interannual changes in snow storage in the Šumava Mountains was the increasing mean cold season air temperature, causing a decrease in snowfall and thus a reduction in the maximum snow water equivalent, which can be intensified by a decrease in cold season precipitation. This was also indicated by the frequency of different types of snow drought, especially an increase in warm snow-poor seasons, which, considering the predicted climate change, highlighted the importance of this phenomenon....
Causes of bee loss (Anthophila) in the landscape
Bureš, Vít ; Straka, Jakub (advisor) ; Tropek, Robert (referee)
Bees (Anthophila) are one of the most important pollinators in the majority of Earth's biotopes. They interact with almost one-fifth of flowering plants and together with other pollinators they secure one- third of human food sources. Since the end of World war II,along-term decrease in numbers of bees and other insects is observed due to degradation of natural habitats, expansion of agriculture, pesticide usage, parasites, and infections. In North America and Europe, several studies reported a significant loss of bee diversity and abundance. The situation in tropics is unclear and there is not enough evidence if bees are threatened there. Specific changes in relation to the decrease of the bee population are observed in the case of honey bee (Apis mellifera). Due to human beekeeping activities and specific honey bee attributes such as bigger body size or tolerance to lower temperature, honey bees show different trends in their abundance than other bees. This study discusses the causes of these losses and possible future consequences, for example, the collapse of ecosystems as a result of pollination crisis or lack of human food. On the other hand, several phenomena such as extensive agriculture, green cities, or wildfires have a positive impact on bee abundance and diversity. This thesis presents...

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