National Repository of Grey Literature 15 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.02 seconds. 
The different economic effects of the Covid-19 crisis on women and men in the Czech Republic
Menzel, Andreas ; Miotto, Martina
Women are very likely economically and socially affected harder by the Covid-19 crisis for at least three reasons. They are disproportionally employed in sectors affected harder by Covid-19 related lock-downs (tourism, hospitality, retail, services). They are likely to shoulder more of the additional child-care needs due to the closing of schools and child-care facilities. They are more likely to be victims of domestic violence, with many indicators pointing towards an increase in domestic violence due to the lock-down.
Using Bluetooth technology for COVID-19 contact tracing
Jann, Ole ; Kocourek, Pavel ; Steiner, Jakub
The coronavirus is transmitted indiscriminately through proximity, which makes tracing infections difficult. Bluetooth tracing apps can reliably record transmission possibilities even when the participants do not know each other and do not remember the interaction. This can be done with a high degree of privacy. A well-designed app provides a similar level of privacy to not using an app at all. Decentralized data storage means that the privacy and security of the system is highly resilient against exploitation by any powerful actor (such as a government). A disadvantage of protecting privacy through decentralization is that tracing apps need to be taken up by the population one person at a time. Their use cannot be checked remotely and hence cannot be effectively mandated by governments or health authorities. A very high degree of take-up is necessary to make them an effective weapon against the virus. The eRouška app by COVID19cz follows these principles and offers a very high degree of privacy protection. Specifically, it does not collect any data except the phone numbers of non-infected users, and only collects anonymized meeting data (and no location or other metadata) of infected users – this data is only available to a hygienist after voluntary data transmission by the user. No data is transmitted to the server without explicit user agreement.
Short-time work and related measures to mitigate the consequences of a (partial) economic shutdown
Mittag, Nikolas ; Pertold, Filip
The objective of this document is to provide a basic foundation to think about the merits, alternatives and policy design choices of short-time work policies. The first section characterizes the motivation for short-term work and the types of costs that it can help to reduce or cause. The second section briefly overviews key policy alternatives and their merits, to lay out where short-time work has the potential to be useful, and what alternative tools can amend or replace it. This is followed by an overview of short-time work policies from the last recession and key lessons learned from that experience. The document closes with an overview of short-time work policies already enacted in response to the current economic situation. The main aim of this document is to draw general policy conclusions for the current situation in the Czech Republic based on the reviews and considerations in the first two sections. Section 3 will attempt to do so. Readers who are primarily interested in specific policies or those familiar with the literature on short-time work may want to go straight to Section 3.
Helping companies to maintain employment: fast, simple, economically meaningful (short recommendation)
Münich, Daniel
This recommendation describes the basic characteristics of deferring the due date for payment of employers’ social security and health insurance contributions from their employees’ salaries, as one of a range of necessary measures that the Czech government should bring into force as quickly as possible in order to reduce the negative economic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic on companies, employees and residents and to shorten\nthe domestic economy’s future period of consolidation. The measure is in line with the recommendations in the study IDEA anti COVID-19 #2 study, which emphasises the significance of bringing in measures quickly and targeting them at the survival of wellestablished economic structures during the most difficult period.
How should the government’s crisis measures be communicated? Through frequent repetition
Korbel, Václav ; Novák, Vladimír ; Šoltés, Michal ; Tóth, L.
About three weeks after the first case of Covid-19 infection in the Czech Republic was confirmed, i.e. on 20th - 21st March, we carried out a survey to find out how the way government measures are communicated affects residents’ willingness to abide by them. Our main findings were published in IDEA anti COVID-19 study # 7. We supplemented our questionnaire with an experiment in which we provided five different pieces of information\nabout the government measures to five randomly selected groups of people. This study focuses on presenting the results of that experiment.
An overview of foreign testing practices from an economic and statistical perspective
Steiner, Jakub ; Kulveit, J. ; Matysková, L. ; Jann, Ole ; Kocourek, Pavel ; Novák, Vladimír
Our testing algorithm for Covid-19 infection and how we adapt it in response to the epidemic's progress, contact tracing technology, and knowledge of the virus, will be crucial in our fight against the epidemic. That algorithm must be developed with input from epidemiologists, biochemists and others. As economists, we believe we also play a relevant role, since testing for Covid-19 infections is a classic case of the problem of allocating rare goods – tests. We have compiled the following annotated overview of testing practices abroad as a starting point for an interdisciplinary discussion, fully aware of our lack of sufficient knowledge in epidemiology, biochemistry and medicine.
Households’ attitudes to infection and to the government measures: the latest survey data
Korbel, Václav ; Novák, Vladimír ; Šoltés, Michal ; Tóth, L.
This study presents Czech people’s real views about the Covid-19 pandemic from a survey carried out on a representative sample of internet users around the 20th March 2020. It thus presents very up-to-date information about people’s attitudes to the ongoing infection and, moreover, to the measures imposed by the government. The findings provide new and important information to be taken into account when planning further measures. For example, if people had not considered the restrictions on free movement or the requirement to wear face masks as appropriate and had not begun implementing them voluntarily, the relevant authorities would have had to enforce these measures. More than half the population is concerned that they will catch the coronavirus. People have substantial confidence in the ability of the government measures to successfully overcome the current situation. The majority of people, around 75 %, declare themselves willing to limit their outdoor movements to essential activities and otherwise stay at home. Even so, almost 53 % of respondents go out every day. If it were to be necessary, many people are prepared to refrain from outdoor and social activities even for months. People believe that there is a moderately high chance of meeting an infected person on the street. Wearing face masks became a matter of course very quickly. 92 % of people only leave their homes with a face mask on, the majority agree that people without face masks should not be allowed into public areas, if they meet someone without a face mask, 42 % of respondents are prepared to tell the person concerned that they should wear a mask and a quarter would express their disapproval by frowning at that person.5 Another study will follow soon after this one, which reveals how reminders about government orders and recommendations (to wear face masks and practice social distancing) affect people’s willingness to abide by them and how the way the measures are communicated affects that willingness. Keep an eye out for more IDEA studies.
What behavioural economics can teach us about prevention: another way of fighting Covid-19
Bauer, Michal ; Chytilová, Julie
Every one of us can help limit the spread of the Covid-19 virus today, through our everyday behaviour. Research from behavioural science to date has shown how individuals, private organizations and state institutions can all contribute to changes in behaviour that are effective in prevention. Thanks to the studies that have been carried out so far, we know quite a lot about how the virus spreads most frequently and what kinds of behaviour are most effective in preventing that spread. Washing our hands with soap, avoiding touching our faces and stifling any coughs or sneezes into the air are all very effective. However, research has shown that simply being informed about all this is not sufficient for people to change their behaviour. People have a tendency to forget, which is enhanced by tiredness and inattention, many people also tend to procrastinate and not to do things even though they are aware of wanting to do them. Furthermore, it is difficult to change our long-established habits. Most existing research into behavioural prevention is, quite naturally, from developing countries, where the spread of infectious diseases has been a more topical problem than in the economically developed countries. These studies have shown that frequent, simple reminders can be very beneficial. Making hand-washing facilities available to the public does not mean that people will use them. Their placement within the public space and their visibility play a key role. We must think carefully about how to create an environment in which the target\nbehaviour is easily carried out, people are constantly reminded of it, and it gradually becomes automatic. Our habits, which are very hard for us to shake off, often act as a barrier to regular, proper hand-washing at home. People tend to wash their hands too quickly and not thoroughly enough. Even when we know how to wash our hands properly, doing so systematically, several times a day for twenty seconds at a time is no easy task.
The economics of testing for Covid-19: beware of greater damage than benefit
Kulveit, J. ; Steiner, Jakub
There are limited numbers of tests for Covid-19, especially of the more precise type known as PCR tests. That means they must be used as efficiently as possible, in terms of which people are tested. Efficiency in the use of these tests is not only a matter of revealing how many people are infected, but also has to do with the potential ability of those tested to spread the infection further, which a positive test result can help to prevent. The algorithms by which the short supply of Covid-19 tests is assigned must therefore be grounded in the social, rather than individual benefits of testing. People whose testing brings maximum social benefit should be given priority. The social benefit of testing a particular person is calculated primarily in terms of the a priori likelihood (rough estimation) of that person being infected, based on information about where they live and their lifestyle. The second important criterion is that individual’s epidemiological significance, which is an indication of how much the individual in questions comes into contact with, and is likely to come into further contact with other at-risk people. This can also be established by asking pertinent questions to the individual themselves, complemented if desired by a survey in the place where they live. Although our estimations of the social benefit of testing are based on imprecise and incomplete data, the algorithm for allocating the limited numbers of PCR tests we have that is based on them is more socially effective than blanket use of them for testing anyone suspected of having contracted Covid-19. The greatest social benefit of testing comes from identifying the infection in people whose level of social interaction is high, during the phase of the infection in which they do not yet have any symptoms, that is, in so-called superspreaders. When evaluating the results of any test it is necessary to bear in mind that no test is ever entirely precise (reliable). Although PCR tests are very precise in laboratory conditions, errors can occur when samples are collected in the field, for example through poor sample handling. Our interpretation of the test result is then sensitive to the a priori likelihood that the person in question is infected, which might be low even when the test is positive, because the tests are not entirely reliable. It is not appropriate to use tests in situations in which nothing about the healthcare official’s decision about the next steps to take will change, regardless of the test result. If the healthcare official knows beforehand that they will not change their approach even if the result of the test is surprising, they should not waste one of those rather rare tests on testing the patient in question. Among the general public, testing can create undesirable motives that facilitate the spread of the infection. For example, if only people with a high a priori likelihood of infection are tested, people will exaggerate their own likelihood of being infected in an effort to gain access to testing. That’s why, for example, at the beginning of the Covid-19 epidemic in the Czech Republic, some Czechs who wanted to get themselves tested told healthcare officials they had been in Italy, when in fact they had not. Having been approved for testing, they then unnecessarily exposed themselves to the virus at the testing facilities. Social stigma surrounding infection with Covid-19 also poses complications, since it motivates people to conceal any symptoms they are experiencing and avoid being tested. For that reason, it may be sensible not to publicise details of the algorithm according to which individuals might be selected for testing, and to work systematically and intensively to prevent any stigma associated with Covid-19 infection through media campaigns and raising public awareness.
An economic shock the like of which the world has never seen: we must quickly freeze the economy and then warm it up again (nightly research into the economic literature)
Matějka, Filip
The usual rules of economic stimulus do not apply now, because we actually want this recession. We need to limit meetings and in-person collaboration, the recession should be substantial. On the other hand, it could be exceptionally short. We must put the economy into hibernation, while at the same time preserving as many vital employment ties as possible. We will only be able to start stimulating the economy to increase performance once the greatest health risks are behind us. For now, the authorities must focus on ensuring that businesses and households can survive this period. This is the cheaper strategy, because if employment ties were broken it would take years to renew them, even if the health crisis were to last only a month.

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