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Electron microscopical study of embryonic envelopes in the tapeworm Proteocephalus torulosus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea)
Bruňanská, Magdaléna ; Nebesářová, Jana ; Scholz, Tomáš
The ultrastructure of the embryonic envelopes of the cestode Proteocephalus torulosus (Batsch, 1786), a parasite of cyprinid fish, was examined by transmission electron microscopy.

Diversity, host specifity and phylogenetic relationships of tapeworms of the genus \kur{Monobothrioides} (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea),parasites of catfishes in Africa.
HRUBÁ, Kateřina
Taxonomic and morphological evaluation of tapeworms of the genus Monobothrioides (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea)and their hosts, catfishes of the genera Auchenoglanis and Clarias from Africa, provided new data on four species of the genus Monobothrioides, two of them being new for sience. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, relationships between the species of Monobothrioides were assessed.

Histological evaluation of the parasitic load using the model Myoxocephalus scorpius and Gymnocanthus tricuspis - Trichodina spp.
The main goal of this work was the study of parasitism of a shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) and an arctic staghorn sculpin (Gymnocanthus tricuspis) parasitized by ciliates Trichodina spp. Studied samples of gill originated from fish caught in 2011 and 2012 in the central part of Svalbard mainly in the bay of Petuniabukta. In the same fish, from which samples of gill were taken, parasitic endohelminths were also identified. Histological and microscopic methods were used for quantification of the ciliates and their prevalence in the samples from individual fish was compared with number of identified helminths and with the physical condition of the host fish. One of the main aims of this work was to confirm or exclude the hypothesis that the number of the parasitic ciliates Trichodina spp. correlates with the intensity of infection with endohelminths and that in general a higher level of parasitism is also reflected by a lower physical condition of fish. Another aim of the work was to improve the theoretical knowledge and the practical skills in histological methods, which included fixation, embedding, cutting and staining of tissues, and to learn the methods of microscopic diagnostics. For the histological assessment, samples of gills from a shorthorn sculpin were used. These fish were caught using a benthic gill net or during diving and then their length, total weight, weight of gonads and weight of liver were sequentially measured. The gill samples taken during pathological dissection of fish were carefully fixed for subsequent histological examination and labelled. During dissection the parasitic endohelminths were also identified and counted. The tapeworm Diplocotyle olrikii (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea), plerocercoids Tetraphyllidae gen. sp., a intestinalfluke Podocotyle atomon (Digenea: Opecoelidae) and anisakid larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) were among the identified parasites. Histological dissections were made from each gill.The sections were examined by the microscopes Olympus BX51 and Olympus CX 21 with objectives 20 x and 40 x.Trichodines and endohelminths were quantified and their numbers recorded together with parameters of the host fish and their calculated condition factors. The fish condition was estimated using condition factors GSI (gonadosomatic index), LSI (hepatosomatic index) and KK (condition coefficient).To determine the correlation between the number of the individual parasites, species identity and sex of fish, an analysis of main components (PCA) in program Canoco for Windows was performed.The ordination diagram showed the positive correlation between all categories of parasites with the strongest correlation between tapeworms, flukes and nematodes. Trichodines exhibited a weak positive correlation with nematodes correlation while there was almost no correlation with flukes and tapeworms. The second statistical testing was performed by the statistical program R. Using this program condition indexes dependence on the number of parasites, species identity and sex of fish was assessed. The results did not show the negative effect of parasites on the condition of the fish, on the contrary the condition indexes of fish were increasing with increasing number of parasites. It is likely that the used indexes might not be ideal indicators of condition because they reflect mainly the size (and thus age) of fish. Different results were obtained using the condition coefficient (KK), which showed a trend towards a negative dependence on trichodina and endohelminth numbers. However, this trend was not statistically significant.

Interaction between tapeworm infection and heavy metals accumulation in the host
Magdálek, Jan ; Jankovská, Ivana (advisor) ; Ivana, Ivana (referee)
Heavy metals in living organisms occur in trace amounts. While zinc is an essential element wich is indispensable for many physiological processes, cadmium in body acts as atissue toxin, that can cause oxidative stress and contribute to cancer development. Recent studies suggest that some species of tapeworms (Cestoda) and Acantocephala are able to absorb in their tissue higher quantity of heavy metals in comparsion with their hosts. Moreover it was observed that In connection with the increased accumulation of heavy metals in the tissue of tapeworm was decreased amounts of these metals in the organs of the host. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether the rat tapevorm (Hymenolepis diminuta) causes a decrease in the concentration of Cd and Zn in the organs of rats. A total of 24 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into 4 groups (n=6). Groups PT and 0P take increased doses of kadmium (3,0 mg/week) and zinc (235,7 mg/week) for six weeks. This increased intake was achieved by adding Arabidopis halleri to feed. After six weeks rats were killed and concentrations in their tissues (bone, muscle, testes, spleen, intestine, liver kidney) were analyzed. Subsequent statistical tests confirmed lower levels of Cd and Zn in some organs of rats infected with tapeworm compared to rats without infection. For example in kidney, liver ant intestine of infected rats was detected 2,9; 2,5 and 1,8 times lower concentrations of cadmium and zinc in comparsion with uninfected rats. Tapeworm absorbed 1695 time higher amount of kadmium compared to the host muscle. The zinc content was lower in all organs (except spleen and testes) of infected rats in comparsion to uninfected. In kidney, liver and intestine of infected rats was 1,2; 1,25 and 1,4 times lower average concentration of zinc in comparsion with uninfected rats. The tape worm absorb higher concentration of zinc compared to all organs of the host.