National Repository of Grey Literature 110 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The content of antioxidants in raw materials and their stability in enriched foods depending on the processing technology
Oxidation reactions, that can negatively affect safety and sensory properties, take place during food storage. To inhibit such an unwanted process, natural polyphenolic antioxidants can be added to food. The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of the addition of polyphenol rich plant materials on chemical and sensory properties of commonly consumed food products. Two types of polyphenol rich plant material were chosen: onion (Allium cepa L.) peel, which is processing by-product and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract Inolens 4. The addition of polyphenol rich material (both, onion peel and rosemary extract) increased antioxidant activity of food and also delayed lipid oxidation in meat products. Unfortunately, in some cases the addition caused deterioration of sensory properties leading to poor consumers' acceptance. This was observed mainly after the addtition of onion peel powder in higher amounts. The addtition negatively affected hardness of texture. On the other hand, onion peel powder can effectively cover or reduce formation of unpleasant fishy odour, that is typical for fish products stored for long period of time. Additionally, several coumpounds occurring only in onion peel were identified (4 types of quercetin dimer and 1 type of trimer) and their stability during thermal treatment of fortified food was elucidated. This was first study that described this phenomenon. Overall, it can be concluded that plant polyphenols have the potential to extend shelf life of food products.
Isolation and characterization of beta-glucans of natural origin
Ratsilouskaya, Lizaveta ; Hoová, Julie (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The bachelor thesis deals with the characterization of natural beta-glucans and other active substances isolated from macroalgae and yeasts. The used macroalgae samples differ in the pigment, origin and method of algae processing. The theoretical part focuses on seaweed and yeast species, beta-glucans, their sources and biological effects, other biologically active substances (such as polyphenols and antioxidants) and finally on methods for determining these biologically active substances. In the practical part, samples of selected macroalgae were analyzed, namely samples of Arame, Nori, Kombu, Wakame, Hijiki and Spaghetti. Aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of these algae were prepared in this work. The aqueous extracts were used for spectrophotometric determination of phenolic substances, flavonoids and antioxidant activity by the ABTS method. Furthermore, ethanol and acetone extracts of said macroalgae were used to determine total chlorophyll and carotenoid content spectrophotometric. The work also focused on beta-glucan content, analyzing macroalgae and yeast R. toruloides. Arame and Nori algae and R. toruloides were high in beta-glucans. However, beta-glucans were very low in other macroalgae.
Pretreatment of hops for further processing in beer technology
Tichá, Anna ; Štursa, Václav (referee) ; Pořízka, Jaromír (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with pre-treatment of hops for further processing in beer technology. In the experimental part of the work, the effect of low temperatures, as pre-treatment of hops, on the monitored parameters was observed. Three types of cold pretreatment were used. In two cases, the hop material was frozen using a freezer at -25 ° C and in the second case at -70 ° C. In the third case, the hop material was treated by contact with liquid nitrogen in combination with mechanical treatment. The variety of hop materiál was Žatecký poloraný červeňák, which were in the form of pellets or pressed hop cones. The total bitterness of the samples, the total content of phenolic substances, the total content of flavonoids, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of essential oils, specifically myrcene humulene and geraniol, were examined. The effect of pre-treatment was investigated during conventional worth boiling as well as dryhopping. The experimental part includes descriptions of the hopping process, descriptions of individual analytical methods. A parallel measurement was performed on each sample. Significant advantages or disadvantages of some of the pretreatments were not demonstrable, however, the most significant differences were observed in samples hopped with hops pretreated by freezing at -70 ° C, which had a positive effect on the amount of extracted essential oils during cold hops.
Encapsulation of active substances and possibilities of their application in anti-aging products
Horváthová, Iveta ; Němcová, Andrea (referee) ; Skoumalová, Petra (advisor)
The aims of this thesis were encapsulation of selected active substances and their possible application in cosmetic products with anti-aging effects. 6 kinds of active substances were studied – lipophilic vitamin E and vitamin A, hydrophilic vitamin B1 and vitamin B2, and phenolic compounds ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid. In theoretocal part, the general characteristics of active compounds and their use are described. It also includes the description of used methods. Practical part was focused on characterisation of active compounds from the perspective of antioxidant activity and encapsulation into liposomes from soy and sunflower lecithin. Encapsulation effectivity, size, stability and long-term stability of liposomes after four weeks were determined. The most suitable liposomes with active compounds were also tested for safety on human skin cells using the MTT test of cytotoxicity on keratinocytes HaCaT. Furthernore, 3 types of cosmetic products were prepared – day cream, night cream and skin serum. Each kind of cosmetic product was devided into 4 types – the product without any active compounds, the product containing free active compounds, the product with liposomes with active compouds and the product containing empty liposomes. As active compounds all our tested substances were used. Final products were tested 14 days on 15 female volunteers. Before and after products usage parametres of their skin were measured to analyze effect of products on skin rejuvenation. Volunteers were also rating sensory analysis of cosmetic products. The part of this thesis was also creating an online questionnaire about anti-aging cosmetics for publicity to find out the popularity of this kind of cosmetics.
Functions of secondary metabolites of lichens
Zvěřinová, Gabriela ; Svoboda, David (advisor) ; Bouda, František (referee)
This bachelor thesis is a review of available literature about lichen secondary metabolites and their functions. Lichens produce a great variety of these compounds; most of them are unique to the lichen symbiosis and are not found in higher plants. Besides the role of these compounds in chemotaxonomy and systematics, lichen secondary metabolites exhibit various biological functions and can affect biotic and abiotic interactions of lichens with their environment. Well-known and often described functions of lichen substances include especially antimicrobial, antiherbivory and antioxidant activity, allelopathy, metal homeostasis and photoprotection. This thesis is focused on these functions and summarizes current knowledge in this area. Key words: lichen, secondary metabolites, allelopathy, antimicrobial activity, herbivory, antioxidant activity, photoprotection, metal homeostasis, pollution tolerance, literary review
Antioxidant activity of some cultivars of Sambucus nigra L. fruits.
Nehybová, Monika ; Spilková, Jiřina (advisor) ; Tůmová, Lenka (referee)
8. Abstract The fruit of the European elder, Sambucus nigra L., is used in therapy as a drug Sambuci fructus for its diaphoretic, diuretic and laxative effects. Cultivars of European elder are being studied for the use in the food industry and pharmacy. The fruit contains especially large amount of anthocyanins and flavonoids that are known for their antioxidant activity. The aim of this work is to measure the antioxidant activity of the drug Sambuci fructus and of the fruit of the European elder cultivars Samdal, Mammut, Sambo, Sambu, Sampo, Bohatka, Haschberg, Weihenstephan, Allesö, and Samyl. An extract containing anthocyanins was obtained from fruit by a process based on extraction of frozen material with acidified water at high temperature, followed by separation with polymer non-ionogenic polystyrene-divinylbenzene sorbent. The content of anthocyanins in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically using a modified pH-differential method. The absorbance was measured along the range of 350 - 600 nm. The content of the anthocyanins was quantified in units of mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside in 1 ml of extract. The content ranged from 0.33 - 2.76 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/ml of extract. The highest content was in the extract from the fruit of the cultivar Samdal and the lowest was of the cultivar Mammut....
Biologically active substances of the Gotu kola plant
Šumberová, Michaela ; Nábělek, Jakub (referee) ; Zemanová, Jana (advisor)
The Bachelor thesis focuses on the preparation and characterization of the extract of Gotu kola (Centella asiatica). The theoretical part summarizes commonly analyzed groups of biologically active compounds of herbs and introduces potential applications of the extract in food industry. Moreover, an overview of possibly used extraction methods and analytical methods for the evaluation of biologically active compounds of the extract are presented. As for the experiment, the extract of the fresh Centella asiatica herb was prepared by maceration in ethanol and then analyzed by three chosen methods. The total phenolic content of the extract analyzed by the Folin-Ciocalteu test was 0.74 ± 0.08 mgGAE·g-1. As for the quantification of antioxidant activity, the TEAC test was performed and the antioxidant activity of the extract was 289 ± 81 µg·ml-1. The volatiles present in the extract were identified by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry in combination with solid-phase micro-extraction. Sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons were the most dominant group of the extract, in which -farnesene (33.28 %), -caryophyllene (25.01 %), and -humulene (20.91 %) were the major compounds.
Study of the presence of phenolic substances and their antioxidant activity in food products containing rosehip (Rosa canina L.)
Hronová, Vendula ; Mikulíková, Renata (referee) ; Kovalčík, Adriána (advisor)
This bachelor's thesis monitored the content of bioactive substances and antioxidant activity in the jams made of the fruit of rose hips (Rosa canina L.). The jams were sweetened with various sweeteners such as cane sugar, beet sugar, erythritol and stevia. Moreover, the rheological properties of jams were determined. The properties of home-made jams prepared from rosehip fruit were compared with the commercial jam. Another aim was to determine whether the by-products received after the production of jams could serve as beneficial sources of bioactive substances after the preparation of water extracts. The content of carbohydrates, polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined in jams and extracts spectrophotometrically. Next, the spectrophotometric detection of pectin, the chemical characterization of jams by infrared spectrometry, and the spectrophotometric determination of the jam colour were performed. The concentration of bioactive substances in jams was influenced by the geographical location and the time and weather conditions of harvest. The rheological properties and pectin content of the jams depended on the type of the used sweetener. The assessment of the water extracts prepared from the by-products after jam production and from the dried fruits of rosehip showed the high content of bioactive substances and high antioxidant activity in all tested extracts. The presented work points out that it is possible to prepare jams with superfood properties from the fruit of rose hips and extracts with high antioxidant activity.
Characterization of blackthorn products
Červinková, Zuzana ; Veselá, Mária (referee) ; Kovalčík, Adriána (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the preparation and the chemical characterization of ethanolic extracts and products from the blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) fruit. The theoretical part of the work contains the characterization of the blackthorn and describes the chemical composition of the fruit. Furthermore, the theoretical part states possible effects and possible uses of the Prunus spinosa L. fruit in the food industry, folk medicine and pharmacy. The experimental part describes the preparation of the extracts (40% ethanol) and the products (i.e., homemade sloe wine and homemade blackthorn liqueur). The content of reducing sugars, polyphenols and flavonoids was quantified in samples of wine, liqueur, juice and ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of individual samples was determined. Two spectrophotometric methods for the determination of reducing sugars were used and compared, namely the Somogyi-Nelson (SN) assay and the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assay. The DNS assay provided slightly overestimated results, while the results from the SN assay were closer to the actual content of reducing sugars. Polyphenols and flavonoids are substances that have antioxidant properties. A strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and the concentration of flavonoids.
Biochemistry of polyphenols effects in the treatment of vascular disease
Kondrashov, Alexey ; Štípek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Pecháňová, Olga (referee) ; Matouš-Malbohan, Ivan (referee)
This Ph.D. thesis deals with the deep analysis of polyphenols effects toward vascular disorders. This work provides a number of experimental results of studying both the effects of natural bioactive compounds in red wines and potatoes, and their application to the experiments which includes experimental animal models with spontaneous hypertension. Methods and equipment used in experimental studies allowed us to make several new statements regarding the universal nature of the relationships between the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic content in examined foodstuffs. Besides this it is also recognized that food is a source of minerals which also contribute to the total antioxidant capacity and therefore may have influence the endogenous antioxidant enzyme system by providing the essential cofactors. Experimentally we have found that the concentrations of magnesium known for its therapeutic action in wine and red wine extract are comparable to the mineral waters recommended for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Moreover, synergistic interactions between selected minerals have been found. The key issue of bioavailability of polyphenols for supporting the idea of the beneficial effects of diet rich in fruits and vegetables toward vascular disease prevention...

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