National Repository of Grey Literature 53 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Karyotype evolution of velvet spiders (Araneae: Eresidae)
Forman, Martin ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Rothová, Olga (referee)
Presented study is aimed to determine basic trends of karyotype evolution in velvet spiders (Eresidae; Araneae). Eresids are burrowing spiders; they includes also some social species. Karyotypes of 16 species of the family Eresidae as well as 2 species of the other families of the superfamily Eresoidea, Hersiliidae and Oecobiidae, are presented. Furthermore, DNA content and base proportion was determined in 14 species. In two species, DNA content of sex chromosomes was also measured. Obtained results revealed considerable variability of diploid numbers, and sex chromosomes systems in eresids. Obtained karyotype data allow to divide eresids into four groups. Karyotypes of the genera Gandanameno, Dresserus and S. lineatus are close to proposed ancestral karyotype of entelegynae spiders and they show the ancestral state of karyotype in velvet spiders. Karyotypes of S. lineatus and E. annulipes differ substantially from other representatives of the genera Stegodyphus and Eresus which indicates paraphyly of these genera. Karyotypes of basal forms are formed by acrocentric chromosomes. Further evolution of eresid karyotypes included considerable reduction of diploid numbers as well as changes of chromosome morphology. Social species of the genus Stegodyphus show tendency to reduce diploid numbers by...
Response of primary photosynthetic processes in C3 and C4 monocotyledonous plants to steroids aplication
Frimlová, Klára ; Rothová, Olga (advisor) ; Mocová, Klára Anna (referee)
Brassinosteroids and ecdysteroid are naturally occuring chemical compounds in plants. The aim of this study was to show whether the application of exogenous steroids such as brassinosteroids (24-epibrassinolide, 28-homobrassinolide, 24-epicastasterone) and ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone) can affect the morphological parameters and primary photosyntetic processes of selected monocotyledons that was barley, wheat, maize and sorghum. Non-destructive method for measuring of fast kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence in investigated plants was used. Analysis of primary photosynthetic processes was realized in five time periods from the application of exogenous steroids on the two different old leaves. The response to the treatment by exogenous steroid was different species by plant species. One week after the application of exogenous steroids plants showed differences in their morphological parameters but most of them were not signifficant. The most steroid-sensitive plant was wheat morphological parameters of were significantly different from untreated control plants. No change in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II to the application of exogenous steroid in plants of Sorghum bicolor L. was detected. In the other examined plant species changes in photosynthesis parameters were detected which...
Gene expression of specific parts of CNS in a rat model for transgenerational transmission of drug addiction.
Radilová, Kateřina ; Černá, Marie (advisor) ; Rothová, Olga (referee)
Methamphetamine (MA) is a drug often abused by drug-addicted women and also is the mostly used drug in the Czech Republic. This drug crosses the placental and hematoencephalic barriers easily and therefore it can negatively affect not just mother herself, but also the development of the fetus. Even though there have been several published studies evincive negative effects of MA to posterity of drug-addicted mothers, the most critical term during pregnancy for the fetus remains unknown. In this study are examined CNS structures, which are directly influenced by methamphetamine action. Their function may lead to drug addiction through pleasurable feelings, such as reward feeling evoking. In the next chapter are analysed neurotransmitters and their transporters, which are related to methamphetamine effects. Studying their structure, localization or development during life may help to bring near the drug functioning in different life periods. Methamphetamine itself and its effects are closer described in the last part of this study. The problem of methamphetamine exposed fetus is outlined there - prenatal and postnatal so far known differences, but also sex differences in methamphetamine pharma- cokinetics.
Response of different genotypes of Zea mays L. and Vicia faba L. treated with brassinosteroids to water deficit
Kuklíková, Radka ; Rothová, Olga (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee)
This work monitors the response of plants to the application of a solution of synthetic brassinosteroid (5-fluor-3α,17β-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-6-on) under drought stress conditions and subsequent restoration of water availability. The response of two plant species was monitored under six-day period of cessation of watering and under six-day period of renewed optimal water supply. The experiments were carried out on plants with different type of photosynthesis - C3 plant Vicia faba L. and C4 plant Zea mays L.. For both plant species, three varieties/genotypes were used. Photosynthetic, morphological and developmental characteristics were monitored. The brassinosteroid treatment influenced more the morphological than the photosynthetic characteristics. The content of photosynthetic pigments was influenced more than the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The differences in morphological characteristics between individual varieties/genotypes were observed. The response to the application of brassinosteroid was observed especially for drought-sensitive variety/genotype. Application of brassinosteroid caused increase of the dry mass of leaves and roots, the height to leaf , the height of the whole plant and its increment under stress and post-stress periods in both plant species. The content of...
Characterization of the Hstx1 and Hstx2 hybrid sterility candidate genes
Kašíková, Lenka ; Jansa, Petr (advisor) ; Rothová, Olga (referee)
Speciation, the formation of new species, is an essential evolutionary process that causes species diversity on the Earth. At the beginning of this process is the separation of two populations by a reproductive barrier that prevents gene flow between these populations. One of the mechanisms, which enable reproductive isolation, is hybrid sterility (HS). It is a mechanism of postzygotic isolation that is described in a number of eukaryotes. The first discovered gene of hybrid sterility in vertebrates is the mice gene Hst1, later identified as gene Prdm9. By genetic and molecular analysis the locus on the X chromosome was determined, whose interaction with Prdm9 causes sterility or reduced fitness in male hybrids. This locus contains two genetic factors: Hstx1, causing an abnormal morphology of spermatozoa, and Hstx2, causing an arrest in spermatogenesis in pachytene spermatocytes and sterility. In my thesis I focus on the effect of deletion of a candidate hybrid sterility gene Fmr1nb on the X chromosome. The analysis of males B6N.Fmr1nbmut with deletion variants of the Fmr1nb gene showed that Fmr1nb is one of the factors influencing spermatogenesis. An increase in morphologic abnormalities in spermatozoa occurred in males with Fmr1nb gene deletion. This phenotype is identical with Hstx1. The effect...
Organoids - the phenomenon of complex organ-like structures cultivation in vitro
Vilímková, Veronika ; Janečková, Lucie (advisor) ; Rothová, Olga (referee)
Pluripotent embryonal stem cells (ESCs) are unique for their ability to proliferate and differentiate into almost all cell types. In the presence of appropriate stimuli, they are able to initiate morphogenesis in vitro. Stem cells are able to differentiate into specific cell lines of a given tissue and to arrange three- dimensional (3D) structures. These so-called organoids are formed in a self-organizing process that mimics normal ESCs development. Organ development is a complex process that requires temporally and spatially ordered regulatory signals. 3D organization of these structures allows important cell-cell interactions. Organoid cultures are thus the area of a huge potential. Organoids are accessible to all standard experimental manipulations. They are therefore an ideal tool for the research of stem cells, signaling pathways, organogenesis and disease modeling. Finally, they may open up new avenues for regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Powered by TCPDF (
Marfan syndrome, the main genetic causes
Šinknerová, Eliška ; Rothová, Olga (advisor) ; Daňková, Pavlína (referee)
This thesis is a review with the topic of Marfan syndrome (MFS) that hasn't been sufficiently described in Czech scientific literature yet. The first chapters pursue general informations and history of research of MFS, which was first desribed in 1896 and following research continued. During 1990s the main interest was to describe manifestations of Marfan syndrome and to find main genetic causes. Research continues until today and it is focused on searching specific mutations causing this syndrome. The thesis furthermore describes clinical manifestations classical MFS and neonatal MFS, e. g. manifestations in many body systems as sketal, cardiovascular, pulmonar and other systems. Thesis is focused on process which enables to diagnose MFS. The main part of the thesis is a desctiption of molecular nature and genetic aspects of this syndrome. The thesis describes in detail gene FBN1 and different types of mutationon which are responsible for formation of MFS. Attention is paid to genotype/phenotype correlation. This thesis also includes suggestions for work with this topic (MFS) in teaching at high schools and grammar schools.

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