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Conserved Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation by Nuclear Receptors.
Novotný, Jan Philipp ; Kostrouch, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Stopka, Pavel (referee) ; Lazar, Jozef (referee)
7 Abstract With the first appearance of life on Earth, organisms had to adapt to an ever-changing surrounding environment in order to survive. Since the emergence of metazoan multi- cellularity, subsets of cells could adapt to perform specific biological tasks beneficial to the whole organism, necessitating not only spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression during development, but also integration of tissue specific needs with overall organis- mal status. Within the set of evolutionary conserved regulatory systems, the family of nuclear receptor (NR) transcription factors stands out due to its high degree of evolu- tionary conservation, plasticity and uniqueness to the metazoan kingdom, regulating gene expression in response to, or in the absence of a ligand by genomic and non- genomic actions. With an increasing number of different compounds being recognized as ligands to NRs, it is now thought that ancient NRs were probably characterized by low ligand binding specificity, eventually serving as environmental sensors, integrating nutrient availability and gene expression at the base of metazoan evolution. Characteri- zation of the NR network in one of the simplest metazoan organisms, Trichoplax ad- haerens, revealed not only a functional network and sub-specialization of NR dependent gene regulation, but...

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