
Computational Homotopy Theory
Krčál, Marek ; Matoušek, Jiří (advisor) ; Pultr, Aleš (referee) ; Romero Ibáñez, Ana (referee)
of doctoral thesis "Computational Homotopy Theory": We consider several basic problems of algebraic topology, with connections to combinatorial and geometric questions, from the point of view of compu tational complexity. The extension problem asks, given topological spaces X, Y , a subspace A ⊆ X, and a (continuous) map f : A → Y , whether f can be extended to a map X → Y . For computational purposes, we assume that A, X, Y are represented as finite simplicial complexes and f as a simplicial map. We study the problem under the assumption that, for some d ≥ 1, Y is d connected, otherwise the problem is undecidable by uncomputability of the fundamental group; We prove that, this problem is still undecidable for dim X = 2d + 2. On the other hand, for every fixed dim X ≤ 2d + 1, we obtain an algorithm that solves the extension problem in polynomial time. We obtain analogous complexity results for the problem of determining the set of homotopy classes of maps X → Y . We also consider the computation of the homotopy groups πk(Y ), k ≥ 2, for a 1connected Y . Their computability was established by Brown in 1957; we show that πk(Y ) can be computed in polynomial time for every fixed k ≥ 2. On the other hand, we prove that computing πk(Y ) is #Phard if k is a part of input. It is a strengthening of...


Computational Complexity of Graph Planarity Testing
Krčál, Marek ; Bálek, Martin (advisor) ; Škovroň, Petr (referee)
In this paper we will show that the problem of planarity testing is in SL (symmetric nondeterministic LOGSPACE). The main part of our proof is a reduction of the problem to planarity of graphs with maximal degree three. Note that usual replacing vertices of degree bigger than three by "little circles" can spoil planarity, we need to be smarter. Planarity of graphs with maximal degree three was already solved in paper "Symmetric complementation" by John Reif. Previously Meena Mahajan and Eric Allender have already proved this in ("Complexity of planarity testing"), but their proof is the pure SL implementation of a parallel algorithm by John Reif and Vijaya Ramachandran ("Planarity testing in parallel"). But it is possibly unnecessarily complex and sophisticated for the purposes of the space complexity. This result together with recent breakthrough by Omer Reingold that SL = L ("Undirected Tconnectivity in logspace") completely solves the question of complexity of planarity problem, because planarity is hard for L (it is again shown in "Complexity of planarity testing"). We construct logarithmicspace computable function that converts input graph G into G0 with maximal degree three such that G is planar if and only if G0 is. This together with.


Online algorithms for variants of bin packing
Veselý, Pavel ; Sgall, Jiří (advisor) ; Krčál, Marek (referee)
An online algorithm must make decisions immediately and irrevocably based only on a part of the input without any knowledge of the future part of the input. We introduce the competitive analysis of online algorithms, a standard worstcase analysis, and present main results of this analysis on the problem of online Bin Packing and on some of its variants. In Bin Packing, a sequence of items of size up to 1 arrives to be packed into the minimal number of unit capacity bins. Mainly, we focus on Colored Bin Packing in which items have also a color and we cannot pack two items of the same color adjacently in a bin. For Colored Bin Packing, we improve some previous results on the problem with two colors and present the first results for arbitrarily many colors. Most notably, in the important case when all items have size zero, we give an optimal 1.5competitive algorithm. For items of arbitrary size we present a lower bound of 2.5 and a 3.5competitive algorithm. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)


Computational Homotopy Theory
Krčál, Marek ; Matoušek, Jiří (advisor) ; Pultr, Aleš (referee) ; Romero Ibáñez, Ana (referee)
of doctoral thesis "Computational Homotopy Theory": We consider several basic problems of algebraic topology, with connections to combinatorial and geometric questions, from the point of view of compu tational complexity. The extension problem asks, given topological spaces X, Y , a subspace A ⊆ X, and a (continuous) map f : A → Y , whether f can be extended to a map X → Y . For computational purposes, we assume that A, X, Y are represented as finite simplicial complexes and f as a simplicial map. We study the problem under the assumption that, for some d ≥ 1, Y is d connected, otherwise the problem is undecidable by uncomputability of the fundamental group; We prove that, this problem is still undecidable for dim X = 2d + 2. On the other hand, for every fixed dim X ≤ 2d + 1, we obtain an algorithm that solves the extension problem in polynomial time. We obtain analogous complexity results for the problem of determining the set of homotopy classes of maps X → Y . We also consider the computation of the homotopy groups πk(Y ), k ≥ 2, for a 1connected Y . Their computability was established by Brown in 1957; we show that πk(Y ) can be computed in polynomial time for every fixed k ≥ 2. On the other hand, we prove that computing πk(Y ) is #Phard if k is a part of input. It is a strengthening of...


Flows and cuts with restriction
Knop, Dušan ; Kolman, Petr (advisor) ; Krčál, Marek (referee)
Title: Flows and cuts with constraints Author: Dušan Knop Department: Department of applied mathematics Supervisor: Doc. Mgr. Petr Kolman, PhD, Department of applied mathematics Abstract: In this thesis we study the problem of length bounded cuts between two vertices of a graph. In this problem the task is to find a set of edges such that after its removal the minimal distance between the two vertices is as prescribed. The work provides a basic overview of the literature on this problem and presents it in the context of other theoretical problems. It also offers some applications of length bounded cuts and flows. We describe some heuristics for data reduction. The main result of this thesis is a polynomial time algorithm in seriesparallel graphs for problem of length bounded cut, which is NPhard in general. Keywords: cuts, seriesparallel graphs, algorithm, complexity


Computational Complexity of Graph Planarity Testing
Krčál, Marek ; Škovroň, Petr (referee) ; Bálek, Martin (advisor)
In this paper we will show that the problem of planarity testing is in SL (symmetric nondeterministic LOGSPACE). The main part of our proof is a reduction of the problem to planarity of graphs with maximal degree three. Note that usual replacing vertices of degree bigger than three by "little circles" can spoil planarity, we need to be smarter. Planarity of graphs with maximal degree three was already solved in paper "Symmetric complementation" by John Reif. Previously Meena Mahajan and Eric Allender have already proved this in ("Complexity of planarity testing"), but their proof is the pure SL implementation of a parallel algorithm by John Reif and Vijaya Ramachandran ("Planarity testing in parallel"). But it is possibly unnecessarily complex and sophisticated for the purposes of the space complexity. This result together with recent breakthrough by Omer Reingold that SL = L ("Undirected Tconnectivity in logspace") completely solves the question of complexity of planarity problem, because planarity is hard for L (it is again shown in "Complexity of planarity testing"). We construct logarithmicspace computable function that converts input graph G into G0 with maximal degree three such that G is planar if and only if G0 is. This together with.
