National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Study of Exposure PBDE and Perfluorinated Compounds into Aquatic Ecosystem
Vondráčková, Ilona ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Hroch, Martin (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
In the presented PhD. thesis, problems covering occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and perfluorinated compounds in the environment were solved. The study was focused on identification and further verification of optimal methods in order to determine PBDEs and perfluorinated compounds sampled from the aquatic ecosystem. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers belong to persistent compounds classified as main pollutants; within the environmental constituents, they have been observed particularly in the last decade. For these studies, there were selected surface water matrices and sediments taken in various localities within the river Svratka basin. The analyses were to demonstrate whether they accumulate and remain in these specific matrices for longer time. There we assessed the congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers as follows: BDE-28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183. In order to isolate them from matrices, various extraction techniques were used, i.e., ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction, and pressure solvent extraction. Gas chromatography method with electron capture detection (GC/ECD) was selected for determination. The accomplished studies also assessed basic chemical, physical and environmental characteristics of diphenyl ethers in the environmental constituents. The attention was also paid to perfluorooctanoic compounds (PFOA), (PFOS) and (FOSA); physico-chemical properties of these organic pollutants were characterised and their toxicological and environmental aspects were evaluated. Usability of extraction techniques (ultrasonic extraction, pressure solvent extraction, solid phase extraction) applied to PFCs isolation from sediments samples was assessed. Identification and quantification of these analytes were performed using a high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method (HPLC/MS). After that, the optimized methods applied to real samples. Surface water and sediments were sampled within the river Svratka basin, in particular, from 19 sampling localities. PBDE occurrence was confirmed in sediments samples from the Svratka river (, PBDE were not detected in the surface water samples, their concentrations were below the detection limit, resp.; perfluorinated compounds were not detected in sediments and water samples at all.
Study of the influence of fires of municipal and industrial waste landfills on the enviromental contamination, the combustion products of rubber and halogenated polymers
Sikora, Henryk ; Hroch, Martin (referee) ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
This thesis deals with the issue of fires of municipal and industrial wastes, particularly of rubber and halogenated polymers. When these materials burn, significant amount of harmful substances liberate into environmental compartments. Analysis of samples subjected to thermal decomposition in laboratory conditions explored formation of characteristic compounds in dependence on conditions of combustion. Samples of air, water and soil taken from real fires that occurred between the years 2007 – 2011 in the region of Western Bohemia monitored spreading of these substances into the environment. Majority of these samples were analysed by the means of gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Additionally the effect of extinguishing methods and use of fire extinguishers on formation and spreading of combustion products was studied, especially in soil and in water sources.
The Study of Distribution of Halogenated Diphenylethers to Parts of Environment
Hroch, Martin ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Šucman, Emanuel (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
In recent years considerable attention is paid to problems of brominated flame retardants (BFR's – Brominated Flame retardants), which are a diverse group of organic compounds. Even in the recent past have been the most often represented group particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which have found wide use in many industrial sectors. The reason of aplication of these substances is the ability to slow down the combustion process and reduce the risk of ignition by the excessive heating of material. On the other hand, serious concerns about the use of PBDEs was added. The most serious trouble is particular their possible to release from consumer products during their normal use, toxicity and high persistence in parts of environment. Some of these contaminants are more characterized by a high degree of accumulation in biological systems. In this work by several sub-studies the issue of assessment the level of pollution of the aquatic ecosystem of selected localities of the Czech Republic just PBDEs was addressed. One of objectives was monitored the situation of breeding ponds near the village Záhlinice in Central Moravia. Here was assessed level of contamination in fish and birds as two consecutive segments of food chain. The obtained results largely confirmed the assumption that with increasing trophic level of organisms leads to bioaccumulation and thus also higher findings. For comparison, the capture of fish and birds in other localities of the CR was also implemented. In Bartošovice and Hustopeče nad Becvou levels at the buzzard and heron were detected as comparable. The cormorants of the order higher levels of PBDEs were found. Further were also evaluated levels of PBDEs detected in individuals of bioindicator kind of chub caught in two locations on the river Svratka in spring and autumn. Findings of PBDE in muscle, skin and intestines were compared. The obtained results show that between tissues and sites wasn’t significant variability respectively and the findings of controlled substances are practically comparable. With aim to determine the dependence of the concentration of PBDEs in organisms on the length of the river was conducted monitoring of Vír and Brno water reservoirs. In both locations was main monitored kind of bream, which was completed by the other species. The results of the analysis indicate a higher total concentration at the lower part of river Svratka. Differences were also the distribution of individual congeners in both sampling locations. For monitoring of terrestrial system contamination levels of PBDEs has been selected several types of plant bioindicators. These are mainly pine needles (Scots pine, Eastern white pine, Silver fir, Blue spruce) collected from different localities of the Czech Republic. Other matrices were chosen roughages (Common wheat, Naked barley, Alfalfa wheat, Red clover) and oilseeds (Rapeseed) from the Novy Jicin, where Agriculture plant school of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno. Detected values of PBDE concentrations were very low, generally ranged at the detection limits of the analytical method.
Determination of polybrominated diphenylethers in matrices from fireplaces
Čechová, Eliška ; Hroch, Martin (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers belong among the persistent compounds, which have been classified as priority organic pollutants. In environmental compartments are observed in the past decade. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are detected in abiotic and biotic matrices. For this dissertation were chosen the matrixes from seats of fire, taken in various localities of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Their analysis should demonstrate whether they in these specific matrices remain. There were examined following polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners: BDE- 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183. For their isolation from the matrix were used three different extraction techniques, namely ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction and pressurized solvent extraction. For the determination was chosen method of GC / ECD. In this dissertation are also described basic chemical, physical and environmental properties of BDE, including other analytical methods that can be used to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental compartments.

See also: similar author names
1 Hroch, Michal
6 Hroch, Miloš
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