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The Depiction of Inner Consciousness in the Short Stories by Katherine Mansfield
Bambušková, Tereza ; Wallace, Clare (advisor) ; Nováková, Soňa (referee)
Thesis abstract This thesis will discuss Katherine Mansfield's depiction of the consciousness of the focalizer character using Sigmund Freud's theory of the ego and the superego. The conflict between the society and the individual will be treated in terms of the opposition of the ego, which represents the individual consciousness of the character that reacts to present circumstances and the superego, which is the sum of influences of the family and the social class that the individual belongs in. The behaviour and thoughts of the main character of the story present a subtle conflict between the ways he or she had been conditioned to act and think and the moments of clarity, or epiphanies, which are treated in this thesis as a manifestation of the ego. The depiction of the influences of the ego and the superego will be analysed both on the level of language and narration and on the level of themes and events in the stories. The role of the author will also be looked into, focusing particularly on the question of whether she intervenes with the story or influences the reader in any way. Another important device used in the depiction of the characters' mind are symbols (such as the aloe in "Prelude", the pear tree in "Bliss", the fur in "Miss Brill", the fly in "The Fly", the hat in "The Garden Party" etc.). I...
Another Way Out: Women in Kate O'Brien's Fiction
Homolková, Šárka ; Wallace, Clare (advisor) ; Pilný, Ondřej (referee)
Kate O'Brien was one of Ireland's best female writers; moreover, she was one of the first to centre on the Catholic Middle Class in her writing, as this class was long neglected. O'Brien was famous for her women-oriented books in which she portrayed the lives of women of the rising bourgeoisie of Ireland at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century. We can trace a certain development in O'Brien's writing, throughout her career she becomes more radical and comes to voice feminist notions about women being equal to men as well women's seeking independence from the world dominated by men. Most of her novels are family-oriented and may be called Bildungsromans as the protagonists, which apart from two books are all female, develop and grow to maturity and learn to understand the world and their place in it. As this thesis examined how the women in O'Brien's novels reflect the situation of women in her home country, it is apparent that throughout her life the writer became more radical and sceptical towards the fate of women in Ireland. Therefore, in her first written pieces she portrays women in their traditional roles as dutiful wives, daughters, or mothers. It is only in her later writing that the women manage to emancipate themselves and lead their lives independently. In O'Brien's first two...
Shakespeare revisited: rewritings of Shakespeare in modern British drama
Rezková, Iva ; Wallace, Clare (advisor) ; Nováková, Soňa (referee)
The aim of the thesis is to analyze three recent British rewritings of William Shakespeare's tragedies - Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Edward Bond's Lear, and Sarah Kane's Blasted. The thesis attempts to trace parallels between the classical text and its modern transformation. Nevertheless, central to the study is the discussion of the reasons for dismantling Shakespeare's texts in order to compose own works of art out of their elements. The paper explores in what ways and to what purposes the three playwrights modernize Shakespeare and rewrite his tragedies. The analysis of the three modern plays based on Shakespeare is framed in a study of the shifting attitudes towards Shakespeare's plays and the changing patterns of their adaptations from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. As far as the development of approaches to Shakespeare's texts is concerned, the focus lies particularly on the late twentiethcentury phenomenon of rewriting classical texts in order to present a more updated and thus more accurate picture of contemporary reality and the current vision of human condition. Such a practice and such an approach to classical texts seem to be representative of Stoppard's, Bond's and Kane's plays.
Psychological aspects of the gothic in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's fiction
Procházková, Ilona ; Wallace, Clare (advisor) ; Pilný, Ondřej (referee)
What is usually understood by the term "Gothic" is the distant and rather obscure period of Middle Ages connoting severe wars, fortified inhospitable castles and the burning of witches. Apart from that, the word is very often used specifically to describe the architecture of this time. However, especially in an English cultural context this word gained a secondary meaning which is not completely unrelated to the first one and which is to a large extent connected with literature. Under the influence of Romanticism, the second half of the eighteenth century bears witness to extended interest in uncanny Gothic castles or ruins, forlorn scenery and other melancholy places, with even greater stress put on its mysterious, obscure and frightening aspects that finally resulted in something which may be called the Gothic revival. Victor Sage writes that, "'Gothic' could connote any of a wide range of overlapping senses: horrid, barbarous, superstitious, Tudor, Druid, English, German, and even Oriental."1 One of the primary goals of Gothic literature was to create strong emotion of fear or even horror. Among the most popular settings of its fiction belong gloomy ancient chambers, buildings with rich pasts, abandoned decaying mansions, graveyards and similar places which help to establish the right atmosphere for...
Movement and stagnation in Samuel Beckett's work
Kudrnová, Anna ; Pilný, Ondřej (advisor) ; Wallace, Clare (referee)
Upon encountering the dramas and shorter prosaic works of Samuel Beckett, the reader or spectator will probably soon notice, apart from other characteristic features, the exceptional number of characters that limp, have various foot defects and pains, have problems with locomotion and balance, or who are even legless. In other cases, external causes impede the protagonists from moving, as for example in the play Happy Days, where Winnie is stuck in a mound of earth. Incapability of movement and stagnation, whether voluntary or forced, does not appear merely on the physical level; hesitation, inability to decide or act despite an urge to do so are themes frequently occurring in Beckett's texts; when we think of these manifestations of impotence in abstract terms, we realise that they represent stagnation as well: the inability to progress from one situation to another, further from one attitude or mental state etc. The characters often experience the ancient dilemma of activity versus passivity in human life; in many cases, Beckett illustrates it on motion. Another level on which a certain form of immobility emerges is often the structure of a text; that is to say, the plot does not reach any conclusion; the situation presented therein, although usually close to unbearable, does not change, or becomes...
The American Identity in the Works of David Mamet and Sam Shepard
Sičák, Michal ; Wallace, Clare (advisor) ; Ulmanová, Hana (referee)
In my thesis I focused on the matter of the relationship of Americans during the decades after World War II to their own identity, as well as to the myths of the West or consumer society. I wanted to compare these aspects on plays by Sam Shepard and David Mamet, two playwrights concerned with similar issues in 1960s and 1970s. In the theoretical part of the thesis I concentrated on the development of the American theater off Broadway. I described three significant theater groups of the era and the differences in their approach. I based the comparison of the plays on Richard Schechner's performance theory and J. L. Austin's theory of the so-called "performatives." Later I discussed the matters of rituals and myths in the postmodern society where I based my theory especially on Victor Turner's and Marie Maclean's work. The two main chapters are dealing with comparing two plays by each author with regard to the way Shepard and Mamet work with rituals and modern myths. Those are considered commonplace, insufficient, almost misleading in a modern society, and the plays' characters thus cannot cope with the society. They end up being on its outer edge and do not seem to be able to find the way back. As a result of the comparison of the plays based on the theoretical part I concluded that even though from the...
Monologue Plays in Contemporary British and Irish Theatre
Pavelková, Hana ; Pilný, Ondřej (advisor) ; Wallace, Clare (referee) ; Monks, Aoife (referee)
This dissertation examines a very popular and widespread trend in contemporary British and Irish theatre - monologue plays. One of the reasons of the recent boom of monologue-based theatre performances might be the fact that the condensed theatrical form presents a challenge for everyone involved - the playwrights, actors, and crucially also for the audience. The diversity and quantity of such plays present an obstacle that has deterred most theatre scholars from systematic analysis as it is difficult to decide on what ground such widespread phenomenon might be critically approached. Given the essential role the audience have as the only communication partner of the lonely monologists on stage, this work attempts to analyse the contemporary boom of monologue plays in the U.K. and Ireland by using a systematic framework, based on the various incorporations of the monologue, which enables examination of how specific strategies of the realisation of the monologue elicit audience engagement. First it explores monologue plays in which one actor/actress performs one character, then it deals with plays in which the performer re-enacts other characters, subsequently this work focuses on very rare experiments in the monologue form, where the performer re-enacts conflicting versions of their split selves and...
Between Art and Politics: Disunity of Black Drama during the Harlem Renaissance
Polák, Ondřej ; Wallace, Clare (advisor) ; Ulmanová, Hana (referee)
v Abstract The goal of this work is to prove and map out a split within the newly formed African American drama during the period of the Harlem Renaissance. A split between politicized plays that were used as a tool to raise the spirit and awareness of African Americans, and the "folk plays" that put emphasis on artistic expression without overtly focusing on protest or political agenda. This duality, personified by W.E.B. Du Bois and Alain Locke, defined black drama in the period between 1916 and 1937, and the thesis explains it both from the thoretical standpoint as well as a practical one - meaning from the standpoint of its two philosophical leads as well within the plays themselves. First, the thesis shows the point of view of W.E.B. Du Bois, who stood behind the idea of "propagandistic" plays, and then the view of his opponent Alain Locke, who wanted to let go of outright political agenda and instead sought to legitimize the position of African Americans through artistic merit. Both of these lines of thought garnered following in playwrights, which in turn caused the duality. The thesis goes on to map each ideology separately, along with plays that lean towards it. More specifically it examines Rachel, For Unborn Children, Don't You Want To Be Free? from the Protest School and The Broken Banjo, Plumes...
Boland, McGuckian and Groarke: nature and the self in three contemporary Irish women poets
Skálová, Alena ; Wallace, Clare (advisor) ; Quinn, Justin (referee)
This thesis comprises historical and critical introduction to contemporary women's poetry in Ireland and close reading of three poets of its two latest generations, Eavan Boland, Medbh McGuckian and Vona Groarke. It focuses on her perception of nature and attitude to the relationship between the human self and natural processes and objects. The contextual background to my reading emphasizes the feminist critique of the traditional false images of the woman's self in Irish poetry and politics, and suggests new opportunities of the most recent female poetic voices. The culturally rooted simplifying or even harmful connection between femininity and the fertile land or Catholic ideals of virginity has provoked a lot of indignation among contemporary women poets, and caused abundant literary attempts of its re-negotiation. The authentic poetic representation of the woman's sexual and spiritual connection to the land and nature along with women's subjective use of nature imagery belongs to crucial points of this re-negotiation. It is pursued extensively in all of the poetesses discussed in this paper. My close reading considers the political objectives of the poems and notices different modes of their artistic response to the relevant cultural questions. Nevertheless, it emphasizes also the independence...
The power of self-delusion in Eugene O'Neill's Long day's journey into night and Arthur Miller's Death of a salesman
Klupková, Petra ; Wallace, Clare (advisor) ; Ulmanová, Hana (referee)
Arthur Miller and Eugene Gladstone O'Neill both established themselves as major theatrical icons in America, also earning an international prestige as influential playwrights. While O'Neill is one of the most prominent playwrights America has seen at the turn of the 19th century, Miller markedly stands out from the generation that immediately followed. Their dramatic achievements were recognized both by the audience and the critics, resulting in the highest critical acclaim both in the form of various prestigious awards, O'Neill becoming the first American dramatist to receive the Nobel Prize, as well as causing remarkable controversy. The two plays that are to be examined, Miller's Death of a Salesman and O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night, have both been praised as the authors' finest pieces of writing, and both received the Pulitzer Prize, O'Neill's fourth one, only this time awarded posthumously. Miller himself expressed his admiration to O'Neill's work, as he marked him his "favorite playwright" in an 1957 interview, referring to Long Day's Journey as to a "masterpiece." Even though it might seem that Miller's work draws richly upon the legacy of O'Neill, he refuses any influence of his upon his own writing.1 A similar respect can be seen with T.S. Eliot, who paid tribute to O'Neill by claiming...

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