National Repository of Grey Literature 10 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Age-related differences in translation of mammalian oocytes
del Llano Solanas, Edgar ; Kubelka, Michal (advisor) ; Nevoral, Jan (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
Female germ cells (also known as oocytes) from mammalian species are found in the ovaries in a state of meiotic arrest at prophase I. It is not until puberty that oocytes start to be selected to grow, overcome their meiotic arrest and ovulate, so they become capable of being fertilized and give rise to new individuals. Half of the genetic information from these new individuals comes directly from the oocyte itself, therefore, oocyte and meiosis quality are of great importance for the reproduction. One of the factors, which can drastically reduce oocyte quality in several mammalian species is the advanced age of females. In both mice and humans age-related poor oocyte quality is reflected by a large increase of chromosomal aneuploidy rates. Having an incorrect number of chromosomes reduces embryo viability and may cause severe clinical outcomes. The work of this thesis was primarily directed towards a better understanding of the causes behind age-related aneuploidy in mice oocytes. One of the most characteristic features of oocytes is the fact that they become transcriptionally silent after meiotic resumption, relying heavily on translational control for protein expression. Here we show that after nuclear envelope break down (NEBD), one of the main protein kinases regulating translational...
Role and regulation of nuclear membrane during meiotic maturation of mammalian oocyte
Končická, Markéta ; Kubelka, Michal (advisor) ; Petr, Jaroslav (referee) ; Binarová, Pavla (referee)
Meiotic division of a female germ cell, an oocyte, is more prone to segregation errors and consequently to aneuploidies than meiosis of a sperm. Aneuploidies and chromosomal aberrations in oocytes increase with higher maternal age in humans and also in mice. Meiotic maturation onset is connected with activity of cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) that leads to dissociation of nuclear membrane. Moreover regulation of translation of key transcripts is necessary for proper meiotic progression. In thesis findings from four scientific publications are interpreted. We have analyzed the timing of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes originating from two distinct female age groups: young (2 months old) and aged (12 months old). We found that meiotic maturation happens faster in aged females' oocytes due to early phosphorylation of Lamin A/C, a component of nuclear lamina, and rapid dissociation of nuclear membrane. Moreover aged females' oocytes presented unique characteristic invaginations of nuclear membrane and thus significantly increased circumference of the nuclear envelope compared to the oocytes from young females. These data combined with increased activity of CDK1 and Cyclin B, as well as increased translation of factors that regulate the translation itself,...
Role of MAPK in regulation of cytoplasmic polyadenylation during meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes
Kráčmarová, Jana ; Kubelka, Michal (advisor) ; Svoboda, Petr (referee)
Mammalian oocytes undergoing meiotic maturation are transcriptionally silent and gene expression is therefore regulated at the level of translation. One of the well established mechanisms employed in translational regulation of maternal mRNAs in oocytes is cytoplasmic polyadenylation. This process is generally controlled by phosphorylation and activation of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB). The aim of this thesis is to determine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in regulation of CPEB-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation in maturing mouse and porcine oocytes. For this purpose, MAPK activity was inhibited using its specific inhibitor, GDC-0994 and the effect of MAPK inhibition on cyclin B1 mRNA polyadenylation was monitored. In mouse oocytes, MAPK inhibition impaired neither cyclin B1 mRNA polyadenylation nor its translation and MAPK is thus unlikely to be involved in regulation of cytoplasmic polyadenylation in this species. Based on the results of experiments performed using porcine oocytes, the possible role of MAPK in CPEB-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation can neither be confirmed nor ruled out. Keywords: cytoplasmic polyadenylation, mouse oocyte, porcine oocyte, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), cyclin B1, GDC-0994 inhibitor
Effect of selected endocrine disruptors on the male mouse reproductive system in vivo
Žatecká, Eva ; Pěknicová, Jana (advisor) ; Kubelka, Michal (referee) ; Kaňka, Jiří (referee)
In our environment there are many compounds which can negatively influence humans and wildlife. Every day, a vast number of environmental pollutants are released into our environment and there is no way to avoid their exposure. Some of these compounds can even mimic endogenous hormones and interfere with our endocrine system (so called endocrine disruptors), which is the key regulatory system controlling almost all physiological processes in human and animal bodies. Also the reproductive system is largely regulated by various hormones, and their proper function is crucial for gamete formation, fertilization and embryo development. Environmental pollutants are therefore considered as one of the possible causes of increased infertility in human population. This prompted us to study the effect of two endocrine disruptors (tetrabromobisphenol A - TBBPA, and zearalenone - ZEA) on the male mouse reproductive system in vivo. According to our results, TBBPA is able to induce apoptosis as well as changes in the expression of selected testicular genes and sperm protamination. Our results also suggest that permanent exposure to TBBPA slightly enhances its effect in the next generation, depending on whether the parents have been affected or not. We hypothesized that differential protamination of the sperm DNA...
Characteristics of novel protein interactions of gamma-tubulin and their roles with microtubules and in cell division
Kohoutová, Lucie ; Binarová, Pavla (advisor) ; Kubelka, Michal (referee) ; Dráber, Pavel (referee)
Spatial and temporal regulation of microtubule nucleation and dynamics is required for formation of specific microtubular arrays that react to internal and external signals and change accordingly. Microtubules are nucleated from microtubule-organizing centres such as centrosomes in animal cells or spindle pole bodies in fungi. All higher plants lack centrosomes and thus present a model for study of acentrosomal cell division and microtubule nucleation and organization. γ-Tubulin is a conserved protein from tubulin superfamily with a central role in microtubule nucleation. It also regulates microtubule dynamics and organization including mitotic spindle positioning. Moreover, γ-tubulin functions in cell cycle regulation, checkpoints control, regulation of transcription, and coordination of late mitotic events. We aimed to characterize protein interactions of γ-tubulin and their functions in Arabidopsis. We identified Arabidopsis homologue of putative centrososomal protein RanBPM. Our data showed that AtRanBPM is a member of CTLH complexes. Our finding of CTLH complexes in plants confirmed their conservation in eukaryotic cells. We found that NITRILASE1 is a cell cycle regulator in Arabidopsis that is important for maintenance of genome stability and proper cell division. We studied a role of AtTPX2,...
Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation within mouse spermatogenesis
Homolka, David ; Jansa, Petr (advisor) ; Kubelka, Michal (referee) ; Pěknicová, Jana (referee)
Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) is an essential epigenetic process, which transcriptionally silences X and Y chromosomes during spermatogenesis. It is accompanied by substantial chromatin remodeling resulting in a formation of so called sex or XY body, which is a characteristic of male pachytene spermatocytes. In spite of MSCI indispensability for male fertility, its biological role and molecular nature still remain rather unclear. However, the described link between chromosomal asynapsis and transcriptional silencing demonstrated that MSCI is tightly associated with the asynapsis of largely non-homologous sex chromosomes and is a specific form of more general mechanism called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). The essential role of MSCI was demonstrated using mouse models, such as carriers of X- autosome translocations, where anomalous synapsis of sex chromosomes leads to impairment of MSCI and male sterility. Intriguingly, the exclusive spermatogenic arrest is a hallmark of not only X-autosome translocations but even various autosomal rearrangements, including autosomal translocations, inversions, or other structural mutations. Because the rearranged autosomes often intimately associate with the sex body, it...
CDC25A je schopna indukovat znovuzahájení meiosy, ale inhibuje metafase I – metafase II přechod
Šolc, Petr ; Šašková, Adéla ; Baran, V. ; Kubelka, Michal ; Motlík, Jan
We have shown that CDC25A protein is expressed in GV-stage oocytes but decreases, in CDK1-dependent manner, during meiotic maturation. As compared with GV-stage only a very low level of CDC25A protein is present at metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) stages. CDC25A mRNA is stable during entire meiotic maturation. Exogenous CDC25A was sufficient to overcome cAMP-mediated GV-stage block. Using microinjection of GFP-CDC25A and GFP-CDC25B mRNAs constructs we have revealed that CDC25A is exclusively nuclear protein until nuclear envelope break down (NEBD). In contrast CDC25B localizes to cytoplasm at GV-stage oocytes and translocates to nucleus shortly before NEBD. Overexpression of GFP-CDC25A, to interfere with CDC25A degradation during meiotic maturation, resulted in MI block characterized with problems in chromosome congression and spindle formation. This MI block was accompanied with the transient reduction of both CDK1 and MAPK activities. RNAi mediated CDC25A knock-down resulted in a reduced ability to resume meiosis and to reach MII. These data demonstrate that behavior of CDC25A during female meiosis differs significantly from mitosis and CDC25A is involved in both, resumption of meiosis and also in metaphase I spindle formation as a prerequisite for correct MI-MII transition. It is evident that CDC25B is not only important CDC25 phosphatase for meiotic maturation but also CDC25A has its meiotic specific role.
Aurora-A je zhrnuta v znovuzahájení meiosy a formaci metafáze I spindlu
Šašková, Adéla ; Šolc, Petr ; Baran, V. ; Kubelka, Michal ; Motlík, Jan
We study the role of Aurora-A during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. Total Aurora-A is present in the nucleus in GV-stage oocytes (G2 equivalent). Additionally, active Aurora-A is localized entirely to the centrosome (MTOC) shorly before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Compared to somatic cells, where active Aurora-A is at the centrosomes and the spindle poles, active Aurora-A is strictly localized on MTOCs at metaphase I in oocytes. We show that activation of centrosomal Aurora-A is independent on PI3K-PKB and CDK1 signaling pathways. This was proved by cultivation of oocytes in presence of roscovitine (CDK1 inhibitor), LY-294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and SH-6 (PKB inhibitor). Treated oocytes show high phosphorylation of Aurora-A on T288 and centrosome amplification despite the presence of intact nuclear envelope. Silencing of Aurora-A by RNA interference induces incorrect spindle assembly. Oocytes are arrested in prometaphase I and unable to reach metaphase II. After microinjection of eGFP-Aurora-A mRNA into GV-stage oocytes, overexpression of Aurora-A leads to distortion of MI spindle organization as well. Our results indicate that Aurora-A is the key centrosomal player in meiotic maturation, essential for proper spindle formation and metaphase I - metaphase II transition.
Aurora-A je zhrnuta v znovuzahájení meiosy a formaci metafáze I spindlu
Šašková, Adéla ; Šolc, Petr ; Baran, V. ; Kubelka, Michal ; Motlík, Jan
We study the role of Aurora-A during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. Total Aurora-A is present in the nucleus in GV-stage oocytes (G2 equivalent). Additionally, active Aurora-A is localized entirely to the centrosome (MTOC) shorly before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Compared to somatic cells, where active Aurora-A is at the centrosomes and the spindle poles, active Aurora-A is strictly localized on MTOCs at metaphase I in oocytes. We show that activation of centrosomal Aurora-A is independent on PI3K-PKB and CDK1 signaling pathways. This was proved by cultivation of oocytes in presence of roscovitine (CDK1 inhibitor), LY-294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and SH-6 (PKB inhibitor). Treated oocytes show high phosphorylation of Aurora-A on T288 and centrosome amplification despite the presence of intact nuclear envelope. Silencing of Aurora-A by RNA interference induces incorrect spindle assembly. Oocytes are arrested in prometaphase I and unable to reach metaphase II. After microinjection of eGFP-Aurora-A mRNA into GV-stage oocytes, overexpression of Aurora-A leads to distortion of MI spindle organization as well. Our results indicate that Aurora-A is the key centrosomal player in meiotic maturation, essential for proper spindle formation and metaphase I - metaphase II transition.
CDC25A je schopna indukovat znovuzahájení meiosy, ale inhibuje metafase I – metafase II přechod
Šolc, Petr ; Šašková, Adéla ; Baran, V. ; Kubelka, Michal ; Motlík, Jan
We have shown that CDC25A protein is expressed in GV-stage oocytes but decreases, in CDK1-dependent manner, during meiotic maturation. As compared with GV-stage only a very low level of CDC25A protein is present at metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) stages. CDC25A mRNA is stable during entire meiotic maturation. Exogenous CDC25A was sufficient to overcome cAMP-mediated GV-stage block. Using microinjection of GFP-CDC25A and GFP-CDC25B mRNAs constructs we have revealed that CDC25A is exclusively nuclear protein until nuclear envelope break down (NEBD). In contrast CDC25B localizes to cytoplasm at GV-stage oocytes and translocates to nucleus shortly before NEBD. Overexpression of GFP-CDC25A, to interfere with CDC25A degradation during meiotic maturation, resulted in MI block characterized with problems in chromosome congression and spindle formation. This MI block was accompanied with the transient reduction of both CDK1 and MAPK activities. RNAi mediated CDC25A knock-down resulted in a reduced ability to resume meiosis and to reach MII. These data demonstrate that behavior of CDC25A during female meiosis differs significantly from mitosis and CDC25A is involved in both, resumption of meiosis and also in metaphase I spindle formation as a prerequisite for correct MI-MII transition. It is evident that CDC25B is not only important CDC25 phosphatase for meiotic maturation but also CDC25A has its meiotic specific role.

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