National Repository of Grey Literature 63 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Concept of body in Old Norse literature
Novotná, Marie ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Horáček, Ivan (referee) ; Starý, Jiří (referee)
This work attempts to outline concepts associated with body in the Old Norse literature. As the word for the body (líkamr) as well as the term for an incorporeal soul (sál) do not occur in the Old Norse literature until the translated Christian works and cannot therefore be used as markers, two areas closely connected with the concept of body have been chosen for the research: shifting of shape (hamr) and somatic expressions of emotions. In the first area, i.e. phenomena associated with shape-shifting, contexts of all (113) occurrences of radix ham- in the Old Norse literature are analysed in order to describe the semantical field of this root. Within the themes that have appeared in the material (i.e. shape-shifting related to flying, battle frenzy and magic), occurrences are ordered on an axis from those where the form (hamr) is considered to be holistic to those where just the form of body or soul is described. In this context, it is important to mention the proximity of man and animal in the Germanic environment, as shape-shifting is often related to an animal and thus points to the limits of human identity. In the second area, i.e. somatic expressions of emotions, we can also find cases where the mental and the physical area intersect and the boundaries between diseases and emotions are not...
Evolutionary consequences of species specific learning strategies: importance of processes resulting in food aversion and special case of social transmission
Landová, Eva ; Fuchs, Roman (advisor) ; Komárek, Stanislav (referee) ; Sedláček, František (referee)
t t Summary This PhD. thesis contributesto the investigationof aposematism- the phenomenonexplaining occuÍTenceof warning coloration in nature. Aposematismis anantipredatorystrategyousuallybasedonpredatorlearning to avoid a noxious prey with a conspicuoussignal. However, not only particularaspectsof aposematicprey signalling (waming colour pattern, conspicuousness,unpalatability),but also predator'spsychologyleadingto avoidancebehaviouris animportantfactorin theevolutionof aposematism. The differentialspecies-specificresponseof nine speciesof our conrmon passerine birds to living aposematicprey (the ťrebug) and correspondingunderlyingvariationin predator'secolory requirements has beenstartingpointof thisPhD.thesis. The next partsof the presentthesishavebeenfocusedmainly on determinationof thesespeciesthat respondspositively (throughoutinnate biases,betterlearningor memoryetc.)to the warningsignalof aposematic prey. The diversity of psychological processes leading to avoidance behaviourin thesespecieshas beenassessed.Firstly, we investigateif the avoidancebehaviouris acquiredby learningor ifthe preyis avoidedon the basisof innatebiasesin severalspeciesof family Paridae. Thenwe focused onmodeof avoidanceleaminganddurabilityof acquiredbehaviourin model species(greattits).The changesin memoryfor...
The history and development of imaging and illustration insect entomology
Chobot, Karel ; Stibral, Karel (advisor) ; Janko, Jan (referee) ; Komárek, Stanislav (referee)
The depictionof insectsis a remarkableportion of the historyof science,historyof entomologyandthehistoryof art,too.The thesisfollowsthehistoryof visual representation of insectswith emphasison the realistic depiction,thenthe style variationof entomology illustrationin scientific works. Next to that,the role of insectsin human culture is also followed,becauseof theinfluenceof,sucha rolein thedepictions. Analogicallyto thearthistoryis necessaryto refusethesimply positivisticapproachof regularprogÍess.The effortof preciserepresentationof tiny details,insectsor detailsof their bodies,is pursuablevery early. Relatively precise,determinabledepictionsof insectsare knownin ancientEgypt or ancientGreece,or in latemedievalbook illuminations.Precision, aftertoday'scriteria,is reachedby artistsof laterenaissanceandbeginningof baroque,artists of flower still life, expertson detailedrepresentationof shapesoshinesand surfacesof tiny natural objects,incl. insects.In the same time the entomologyis established,thank to publicationof Aldrovandi'sDe AnimalibusInsectisitt 1602. ThethesisestablisheŠin thehistoryof theinsectdepictiontwo phases'In thefirst,pre- Aldrovandian,is it requiredto follow the developmentof the insect depictionin arts in particular.The role of illustrationsin thattime scientiťrcproductionis minor...
Skull Trepanation in Prehistory of the Europe: The Oldest Surgical Procedures
Moravec, Tomáš ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Pankowská, Anna (referee)
The main aim of the thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of trepanations in the prehistory of Europe and to compile a brief overview of the oldest findings in Europe and closer in the Czech Republic. At first, the thesis deals with the types of trepanations according to their execution and the problems with trepanation diagnosis, where the work focuses on various groups of defects created by different mechanisms, which can be incorrectly diagnosed as trepanations. Further, the thesis deals with the reasons for trepanation and the description of the trepanations tools and techniques used in the prehistory. It also briefly mentions the first references to surgical interventions and the origin of anesthesia. Additionally, the thesis deals with the overview of the oldest findings in Europe and the Czech Republic and their brief description. And finally, there is a mention of trepanations at the present time.

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