National Repository of Grey Literature 227 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Analysis of sensory and toxicologically important compounds in beer
Vrzal, Tomáš
One of the most relevant group of toxicologically significant compounds in beer are N-nitrosamines. In this thesis, the attention was paid especially on non-volatile nitroso compounds whose concentrations in beer, a chemical structure, and a biological effect has not been known yet. For the reason of the lack of knowledge regarding this compound group, the method for their sensitive detection by chemiluminescence detection after gas chromatographic separation was developed. This method permits a classification of detected nitroso compounds to different groups (N-nitroso, C-nitroso, and combination of C-nitroso and nitro) and distinguish them from interferences. The method is based on recording of a pyrolytic profile of each chromatographic peak, the profiles are then processed by discriminant analysis. The method has been developed for finding and structural identification purposes of these unknown compounds. Its application on an artificially nitrosated beer sample, together with gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric analysis, led to structural identification of several representatives of nitroso compounds. Sensory active compounds in this thesis are represented by carbonyl compounds and fatty acids. Carbonyl compounds - furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural - were used during the development...
Utilization of mass spectrometry for analysis of biologically active compounds
Kaliba, David
This PhD thesis provides a commented set of four publications. These publications are focused on capillary electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and UV/Vis spectrometry used to study complexes of rhenium with aromatic ligands. The methods of mass spectrometry with soft ionization techniques, 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectrometry were used for structural characterization of the individual complexes. The complexes were synthetized in reactions of the rhenium precursor tetrabutylammonium tetrachlorooxorhenate with the corresponding ligand under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the course of the research, it was revealed that the prepared complexes (with Re in the oxidation number +V and +VI) are unstable and their oxidation numbers change to another more stable form (Re+VII ). Sub-projects which were successfully implemented during the research were as follows:  Design and successful realization of the process of synthesis of selected rhenium complexes with aromatic ligands 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene in reactions with and without air access, and their structural characterization by ESI-MS, APPI- MS, LDI-MS, ESI-MS/MS, NMR, and IR.  ESI-MS SRM and UV/Vis time studies of the behaviour of primary rhenium complexes...
Analysis of sensory and toxicologically important compounds in beer
Vrzal, Tomáš ; Čabala, Radomír (advisor) ; ADAM, Martin (referee) ; Feltl, Ladislav (referee)
One of the most relevant group of toxicologically significant compounds in beer are N-nitrosamines. In this thesis, the attention was paid especially on non-volatile nitroso compounds whose concentrations in beer, a chemical structure, and a biological effect has not been known yet. For the reason of the lack of knowledge regarding this compound group, the method for their sensitive detection by chemiluminescence detection after gas chromatographic separation was developed. This method permits a classification of detected nitroso compounds to different groups (N-nitroso, C-nitroso, and combination of C-nitroso and nitro) and distinguish them from interferences. The method is based on recording of a pyrolytic profile of each chromatographic peak, the profiles are then processed by discriminant analysis. The method has been developed for finding and structural identification purposes of these unknown compounds. Its application on an artificially nitrosated beer sample, together with gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric analysis, led to structural identification of several representatives of nitroso compounds. Sensory active compounds in this thesis are represented by carbonyl compounds and fatty acids. Carbonyl compounds - furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural - were used during the development...
Vývoj, optimalizace a validace analytické metody na stanovení těkavých mastných kyselin ve vodných vzorcích metodou GC/MS
OPEKAR, Jan
This thesis is focused on the development of an analytical method for the determination of volatile fatty acids in aqueous samples using GC-MS/MS. The theoretical section provides general information on a selected group of acids, their significance in the biogas plants, the means of their derivatization and the analytical techniques used. The practical part mainly deals with optimizition of various parameters in the derivatization reaction to achieve optimal conditions. Finally, the analytical method was successfully validated and applied to the analysis of a real sample.
Protein radical footprinting as a tool for protein therapeutcs validation.
Binar, Michal ; Novák, Petr (advisor) ; Ječmen, Tomáš (referee)
Mass spectrometry techniques are very important and useful tool in studying of protein structure. One of these techniques is the covalent labeling of proteins. The covalent labeling can be used for determination of the accessibility of protein surface and their dynamics in general. Although a lot of reagents have already been developer for this method, most of them are limited by their ability to selectively react with only some of amino acids, mostly lysine, arginine or tyrosine, and non-selective methods such as fast photochemical oxidation of proteins are very demanding and costly. Therefore, there is still a endeavor to develop new methods of covalent labeling. This new method could be trifluoromethylation, which is increasingly used in the modification of organic molecules, and whose potential we have decided to study. In this work we used a new group of formally electrophilic agents, which is formed on the basis of a cyclic hypervalent iodide nucleus. This group so-called Togni reagents was used as a tool for radical protein labeling. Since the structure was well characterized by X-ray, NMR and MS, the human carbonic anhydrase has been selected as a model protein. The modified protein was analyzed by a bottom up approach using a combination of liquid chromatography and high resolution tandem...
Utilization of mass spectrometry for analysis of biologically active compounds
Kaliba, David ; Jelínek, Ivan (advisor) ; Pacáková, Věra (referee) ; Smrček, Stanislav (referee)
This PhD thesis provides a commented set of four publications. These publications are focused on capillary electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and UV/Vis spectrometry used to study complexes of rhenium with aromatic ligands. The methods of mass spectrometry with soft ionization techniques, 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectrometry were used for structural characterization of the individual complexes. The complexes were synthetized in reactions of the rhenium precursor tetrabutylammonium tetrachlorooxorhenate with the corresponding ligand under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the course of the research, it was revealed that the prepared complexes (with Re in the oxidation number +V and +VI) are unstable and their oxidation numbers change to another more stable form (Re+VII ). Sub-projects which were successfully implemented during the research were as follows:  Design and successful realization of the process of synthesis of selected rhenium complexes with aromatic ligands 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene in reactions with and without air access, and their structural characterization by ESI-MS, APPI- MS, LDI-MS, ESI-MS/MS, NMR, and IR.  ESI-MS SRM and UV/Vis time studies of the behaviour of primary rhenium complexes...
BopN function in the Bordetella type III secretion system
Kincová, Veronika ; Kamanová, Jana (advisor) ; Večerek, Branislav (referee)
Species of the Bordetella genus cause the highly contagious whooping cough disease in humans (B. pertussis, B. parapertussis) and related respiratory diseases in other mammals (B. bronchiseptica, B. parapertussis). One of the virulence systems of Bordetellae is the type III secretion system (T3SS) employed for translocation of effector proteins directly from bacterial cytosol into the cytosol of host cells. The T3SS protein BopN protein has been categorized as a Bordetella effector protein. Nevertheless, the homologous proteins in other gram-negative bacteria function in establishing the secretion hierarchy through T3SS and some of them block T3SS secretion in high calcium environments before bacteria-host cell contact has been established. In this thesis I examined the function of the BopN protein and the role of calcium ions in T3SS activity of B. bronchiseptica. Two independent methods have been used for determination of T3SS secretion activity. Addition of 2 mM calcium ions into bacterial media decreased secretion of the T3SS reporter, while no such effect was observed in a B. bronchiseptica strain lacking the bopN gene. Mass spectrometry data confirmed the inhibition of T3SS activity in the presence of calcium ions. Enhanced calcium levels resulted in decreased mobilization and secretion of...
Study of Boron-Carbohydrate Interaction
Vejvodová, Tereza ; Jelínek, Ivan (advisor) ; Coufal, Pavel (referee)
The interaction between boron and sugars is significant for understanding the role of boron as a carrier for nucleotides and carbohydrates. Arylboronic acids also have wide application as sugars sensors because they are small and flexible molecules. Boron complexes play a key role in boron neutron capture therapy. This radiotherapy is important in the treatment of melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme and other types of cancer. Boron complexes with ascorbic acid and glucose were prepared in this thesis and then characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Synthesised complexes were studied using collision-induced dissociation (CID), which led to the clarification of their fragmentation mechanism. Key Words Boron complexes, ascorbic acid, glucose, carbohydrates, mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, ESI-MS, collision-induced dissociation
Analytical study of reduction of ammonium perrhenate using selected reduction agents
Lišková, Jana ; Jelínek, Ivan (advisor) ; Dian, Juraj (referee)
This thesis is focused on analysis of reduction of ammonium perrhenate using less frequent reducing agents. Ascorbic acid and acetylhydrazine were chosen as less common reducing agents. Reductions were observed leveraging capillary zone electrophoresis and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Measurements were carried out both in acidic and in basic environments. Reduction of peak area of ammonium perrhenate was observed using capillary zone electrophoresis after addition of reducing agent. Rate of absorption of ammonium perrhenate was monitored with UV/Vis spectroscopy. Furthermore, the possibility of shifting the equilibrium of the reaction to the benefit of the reduction products was monitored by the addition of the complexing agent. Py- rogallol (benzene-1,2,3-triol) was used as the ligand and acetylhydrazine was selected as the reducing agent. The reduction was monitored by capillary zone electrophoresis. The identity of the resulting complex was confirmed with ESI/MS. Keywords rhenium, rhenium complexes, ascorbic acid, acetylhydrazine, capillary zone electrophore- sis, UV/Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry
Purification of phlorizin from Malus domestica Borkh. leaves by solid-phase extraction and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography.
Prachařová, Eva ; Chlebek, Jakub (advisor) ; Chocholouš, Petr (referee)
DIPLOMA THESIS Purification of phlorizin from Malus domestica Borkh.by solid-phase extraction and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography Eva Prachařová Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany The aim of this diploma thesis was to find the best conditions for purification of a flavonoid extract from leaves of Malus domestica Borkh., and obtaining the purest fraction of phlorizin. Phlorizin may be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 in the future, it has the ability to reduce glycemia by reducing the absorption of glucose in the small intestine and by increasing urinary glucose excretion. The first step was to find an SPE cartridge with a suitable sorbent and a suitable eluent for solid phase extraction. The DPA-6S cartridge and 100% methanol as an eluentwerefound to be the most suitable for SPE. The next step was to find the best possible conditions for semi-preparative HPLC using an ACE 5 C18 column (5 μm, C18, 150 x 10 mm i.d., 150 mm length). The mobile phase consisted of 1% (v/v) acetic acid in water (solvent A) and ethanol 100% (v/v) (solvent B), and a linear gradient elution was used (10-100% B), 0-60 min, the flow: 1mL/min. This method resulted in the 91.05% purity of phlorizin. Keywords: phlorizin, SPE,...

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