National Repository of Grey Literature 68 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Vliv teploty na schopnost oplození a líhnivosti při krátkodobém skladování neoplozených jiker síha peledě (Coregonus peled)
The northern whitefish Coregonus peled (Gmelin, 1788), originally from Russia, was introduced to the Czech Republic in 1970 for its tasty meat and good growth ability. Breeding of this species has been very popular in the past. Currently, thanks to the fish-eating predators, traditional breeding of this species is on decline. The aim of this M. Sc. Thesis was to sumarize the avaible information in the field of peled biology, artificial propagation and also information about effect of temperature on the ability of fertilization and hatching for short-term of unfertilized eggs in other salmonid species. In the practical part, the influence of temperature and length of storage of stripped, unfertilized eggs of peled on fertilization, survival to eyed eggs and hatching were observed. Unfertilized eggs were divided into five bowls and deposited in thermo boxes, which were tempered to 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 °C. After time intervals of 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours, approximately 100 - 200 eggs were taken from each thermobox, which were fertilized with fresh sperm (collected from several males) and water from the hatchery. The fertilized and purified eggs were moved to the incubators with continuously inflow of fresh water. Dead eggs were removed and recorded. Subsequently, fertilization, eyed eggs and hatching eggs were determined. The resulting values of these parameters were expressed as a percentage of the total number of used eggs. High levels of fertilization and survival to eyed eggs were achieved when stored within 1 day from eggs stripping at all temperatures except the highest temperature of 12.5 ° C. As the interval gradually lengthened, the fertilization and survival parameters also decreased, most notably at 7.5 and 10 ° C. To obtain the largest possible amount of fry in fishing practice, it is recommended to store eggs at 2.5 and 5 ° C, up to 48 hours after ova stripping. At higher temperatures, the effective storage time is reduced to 12 hours. Storing eggs for longer than 48 hours, in practical terms has no meaning. At the same time, it was found that at the above-mentioned optimal temperatures for storing eggs (2.5 and 5 ° C), the best hatching results were obtained when storing stripped eggs for 12 hours. Not only for longer, but also for shorter storage lengths, the values of this parameter were lower.
Winter wheat growing in terms of selected farms
PAUL, Radim
The goal of the bachelor thesis was to establish and evaluate a pilot experiment. The effect of 3 nutritional variants with a graded dosage of nitrogen and the application of a growth regulator with the active substance trinexapac-ethyl on the yield and quality parameters of winter wheat grain was evaluated. There was 145 kg pure nutrient N*ha-1 of growth regulator in scenario 1, 191 kg pure nutrient N*ha-1 in scenario 2 and 191 kg pure nutrient N*ha-1 with applied growth regulator in scenario 3. The experiment was performed on a family farm in the growing season of the year 2018 and 2019 near the village Dobkov by the town Chotěboř. The actual yield was in scenarios 2 and 3 was only slightly increased (in the order of tens of kilograms) in spite of the higher dosage of nitrogen in scenario 2 and the application of a growth regulator in scenario 3. Both the higher dosage of nitrogen and the addition of growth regulator had a positive effect on yield-forming elements, and increased the number of ears per m2, further reducing the average number of grains in a spike in scenarios 2 and 3. The weight of one thousand grains was positively affected by a higher dosage of nitrogen in scenario 2, but negatively affected in scenario 3. All quality parameters (nitrogen content, gluten content, Zeleny test and bulk mass) were positively affected by a higher dosage of nitrogen in scenario 2. The application of the growth regulator in scenario 3 increased the declining trend, the Zeleny test, the gluten content, the nitrogen content and also negatively affected the bulk mass.
Vliv technologie pěstování kukuřice seté na množství organického uhlíku v půdě a kvalitu půdní organické hmoty
The aim of the diploma thesis entitled "Influence of maize cultivation technology on the amount of organic carbon in the soil and the quality of soil organic matter" was a comparison of quantity and quality non - humidified soil organic matter in various maize cultivation technologies. The work included not only literary research, but even field experiment, thus regular soil sampling, their processing and subsequent analysis. The theoretical part was focused on growing corn in the conditions of the Czech Republic, description, division and importance of soil organic matter, methods for determining its quality and quantity. The practical part dealt with the establishment of a field experiment of maize, soil sampling, their processing and analysis. The obtained values were used to determine the amount and quality of the primary soil organic matter, which was expressed by the rate constant of its oxidation. The obtained data were statistically evaluated in the program STATISTICA 12. The effects of sampling dates, weed control methods and fertilization variants on various soil characteristics were determined.
Coexistence of plant species in fragmented landscape
Semi-natural grasslands are hotspots of biodiversity in the present-day landscape. The thesis focuses on various effects and processes affecting plant species coexistence at two different scales. At the local scale, the effects of management and fertilization were assessed in relation to abiotic gradients and species functional traits. At the landscape scale, the patch spatial configuration, land use and plant functional traits may influence species distribution. The diversity pattern in fragmented landscape is also modified according to availability of suitable patches and landscape heterogeneity.
NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the process of oogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic development
Valentová, Iveta ; Nevoral, Jan (advisor) ; Drutovič, David (referee)
SIRT1 is a histone deacetylase from the sirtuin family that affects epigenetic and non- epigenetic targets. We can assume that the known SIRT1 substrates are involved in the regulation of gametogenesis and early embryonic development. Our hypotheses say SIRT1 is present in oocytes and early embryos and it plays a physiological role in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryonic development. A mouse model of a conditional knock-out line producing Sirt1-deficient oocytes was developed to verify our hypotheses. Oocytes and embryos were analyzed for SIRT1, its selected substrates and other markers by immunocytochemistry. We found out that the presence of SIRT1 contributes to oocyte quality through modulation of the chromatin histone code and stabilization of the spindle. Furthermore, the purely maternal origin of SIRT1 presents in both zygote pronuclei. Last but not least we discovered a significant effect of SIRT1 on early embryonic development, probably mainly due to its role in the activation of the embryonic genome. The results confirm our hypothesis that SIRT1 is present in oocytes and embryos mainly around chromatin. The results show that SIRT1 is a maternal factor determining oocyte quality and it is necessary for the embryonic genome activation.
Molecular basis of the sperm selection in the mammalian female reproductive tract
Šrámková, Adéla ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Postlerová, Pavla (referee)
Internal fertilization is typical for all mammals. The male transfers sperm cells into the female reproductive tract, where usually one of them reach the oocyte and fertilize it. The female reproductive tract must be adapted to provide a suitable environment for the sperm cells to survive until fertilization. On the other hand, it must also be able to select developmentally competent sperm cells and prevent others to get into the close contact with the oocyte. Physical and molecular mutual communication of sperm cells with the female reproductive tract is ensured by sperm surface molecules and the receptors of the female epithelia lining. It appears that these interactions are required for key transformations, both on the sperm surface and in the cells of the female reproductive tract, where gene expression is affected. As a result of these changes, the most suitable sperm cell with all the required characteristics is allowed to fertilize the matured oocyte.
Aggregation of bull seminal plasma protein
Boháček, Hanuš ; Liberda, Jiří (advisor) ; Hýsková, Veronika (referee)
Mammalian fertilization is a sequence of unique and fascinating events, during which seminal proteins are of crucial role. In case of bull (Bos taurus), proteins of seminal plasma (BSP), especially its major component PDC-109, are known to be in aggregated forms, but little is known about mechanism of forming aggregates and their biological function. In present thesis we discovered some interesting properties of PDC-109 and BSP proteins. We found that concentration of these proteins influences their aggregation state significantly, which can be of great biological importance. Separation of seminal proteins by size exclusion chromatography revealed three main fractions denoted I, II and III, with apparent molecular weights of Mr > 150 000, Mr = 30 000 and Mr = 13 000, respectively. In case of PDC-109, molecular weights of theese fractions were retained even after purification procedure, which implies very stable interactions in forming of aggregates. In addition, there was a difference in distribution of PDC-109 glycoforms among fractions, which can be related to the fact, that theese fractions have different sperm membrane binding patterns as we determined by fluorescence microscopy. However, further experiments are needed for better understanding this issue.
The role of integrins in gametes prior to fertilization and during their interaction
Foldynová, Veronika ; Komrsková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Tlapáková, Tereza (referee)
Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins that represent a large group of cell adhesion receptors involved in cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix and cell-pathogen interacti- ons. Up to now, 24 different integrin heterodimers have been detected in mammals. They are involved in a wide range of processes such as immune response, lymphocyte homing, platelet aggregation, also in wound healing, cell differentiation, migration, proliferation and even in cell survival. Integrins have also been detected on germ cells and are now known to play an important role in reproductive processes such as fertilization, embryo implan- tation, and embryonic development. The main aim of this thesis is to introduce integrins from the perspective of reproduction, integrin physiology, occurrence and localization of individual subunits in male and female germ cells. A significant part of the work is devoted to a discussion of the role of integrins in gametes, both during maturation processes (egg maturation in the ovary, capacitation and the acrosomal reaction of sperm), in sperm mi- gration, oviductal reservoir formation and their direct and indirect involvement in adhesion and fusion of the gametes during fertilization. Keywords: integrins, sperm, egg, fusion, fertilization
Species-specific structural differences of mammalian sperm and function of their key proteins during fertilization.
Dobrodinská, Anna ; Frolíková, Michaela (advisor) ; Kuntová, Barbora (referee)
The fertilization is a process during which a male and a female gamete merge so that a new organism may come into being. The sperm-egg fusion is preceded by several essential processes, such as the capacitation, acrosome reaction, the sperm binding to the zona pellucida and oolemma, and membrane fusion of the gametes. Numerous proteins, which are located in both sperm and eggs, are major actors in controlling the listed, essential processes. During the process of fertilization these proteins fulfil one or more functions. In mammalian sperm, significant species-specific differences may be found both in their morphology and at the protein level. A complex understanding of species-specific distinctions in sperm structure and functions of key sperm proteins would contribute to a better insight into the process of fertilization, thereby enabling us to better diagnose and subsequently treat the causes of infertility in humans. This bachelor's thesis summarizes the current knowledge of sperm structure and its key proteins that has been acquired through the studies of the following model mammal species: bull, boar, mouse, and human. Further, this thesis brings an interspecific comparison between the studied species. Keywords: sperm, fertilization, acrosome reaction, capacitation, sperm proteins, bull,...

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