National Repository of Grey Literature 9 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Population structure, migration and dynamics in Africa and Arabia
Čížková, Martina ; Černý, Viktor (advisor) ; Frynta, Daniel (referee) ; Zrzavý, Jan (referee)
In addition to the interaction of evolutionary forces, the population history of the African Sahel and Arabia has been influenced by the spread of Neolithic cultural innovations. The reflection of these processes today is a very complex structured diversity of the current populations, which is presented here through the analysis of several genetic markers. The aim is to provide a comprehensive view of the history of demographic processes in the Sahel and Arabia, by combining genetic, linguistic, subsistence and geographical data obtained from local populations. A study of a large dataset of mtDNA sequences showed that Arabia was a major crossroads in gene flow, and although it was colonized by anatomically modern humans from East Africa, today's differentiation from Africa is greater than the differentiation between local populations in these regions. Even the Sahel was an important biocorridor in the past. Today, we encounter populations of various subsistence strategies (nomadic pastoralists and settled farmers), between which gene flow has been severely restricted. A comparison of uniparently inherited loci in both groups points to different migratory activity in the eastern and western parts of the Sahel. Analyzes of Alu elements, which indicated the inclination of West African herders (Fulbs)...
Contemporary Scientific Knowledges and its Pedagogical Transformation by Way of Example of Human Evolution's Topic
Dvořáková, Radka ; Vančata, Václav (advisor) ; Zrzavý, Jan (referee) ; Škoda, Jiří (referee)
This thesis is about the pedagogical transformation of modern scientific knowledge from the field of palaeoanthropology and evolution anthropology to the teaching about human at the first and high schools in the Czech Republic. The main objective of this thesis (realised through four constituent research studies) is to analyse and to describe this complex and multilevel process. The first step was the content analyse of 32 textbooks. We also analysed the framework of the whole process. We realise questionnaire survey among 217 teachers and also interview with 10 teachers. The last research study about student's attitude and knowledge was questionnaire survey among 660 students. We found that there are no serious obstacles in the teaching of (human) evolution from the field of believers in the Czech Republic like in some other countries. It takes usually few decades to get new findings and conceptions into the textbooks, despite it some exceptions exist. Teachers seem to be the key participants of the process of pedagogical transformation. It is not only about the information they teach in their lessons but also about the way how they teach and about the attitude the build-up towards the topic among their students.
Phylogeny and evolution of habitat preferences of the subfamilies Rygmodinae and Sphaeridiinae (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)
Sýkora, Vít ; Fikáček, Martin (advisor) ; Zrzavý, Jan (referee)
Subfamilies Rygmodinae and Sphaeridiinae together form approximately one third of the extant diversity within the family Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera: Polyphaga). Members of both these subfamilies inhabit wide spectrum of aquatic and terrestrial environments including specialized habitats such as phytotelmata, carrion or termite nests. So far, habitat shifts within these subfamilies have been only tested with a limited amount of taxa at the family level. Using a broader sampling and Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, genus-level molecular phylogenetic analysis and divergence dating were performed. The dataset included 96 taxa, representing all major clades (genus groups) in both subfamilies, sequenced for two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. A single shift from the aquatic to terrestrial environment in the Middle Jurassic was suggested, thus revealing both subfamilies and all tribes as ancestrally inhabiting decaying plant material and leaf litter. Secondary returns to aquatic habitats were suggested for two lineages of the Rygmodinae and several lineages belonging to tribes Coelostomatini and Megasternini. A single shift to flowers was revealed in the subfamily Rygmodinae. Similarly, single independent shifts to the inquiline lifestyle in tribes Omicrini and Megasternini were revealed. In...
Ontogeny and evolution of body size and sexual size dimorphism in reptiles
Frýdlová, Petra ; Frynta, Daniel (advisor) ; Moravec, Jiří (referee) ; Zrzavý, Jan (referee)
Monitor lizards (Varanidae) are morphologically very uniform in body shape, but much diversified in body size along both phylogenetic and ontogenetic axes. A striking sexual size dimorphism exists in monitor lizards; they are capable of fast growth, metabolism and sexual maturation. I collected the data concerning body size of particular species and verified the validity of Rench's rule, which said that there is bigger difference in body size of a conspecific male and females growing with larger body size of the species. Males are markedly bigger than females. In the next step, I focused on the model species of monitor lizards, Varanus indicus. I monitored its ontogeny very carefully. I found that this monitor lizard has pronounced sexual size dimorphism, but there are only small differences in body shape. It is capable of rapid growth and sexual maturation. The sexual dimorphism in body shape is only poor, but still measurable right in those places where the selection pressures were expected. Blood sampling monitored biochemical and haematological parameters. The concentrations of the biochemical parameters revealed the economy of resources of particular sexes partially, the costs of body growth and reproduction. Although both sexes produce the same amount of biomass (the body growth of males vs. the...
Cyclic development of social communities in insects
Mikát, Michael ; Straka, Jakub (advisor) ; Zrzavý, Jan (referee)
A lot of animal species forms societies - groups of regularly interacting individuals. Societies vary in social structure and relations among their members. Societies with reproductive division of labour are the most complex. Origin of reproductive division of labour is one of main themes of evolutionary biology. In this thesis classification of societies according actual composition is summarized and modified. Societies very changed during colony cycle in taxons which forms eusocial levels societies. For these taxons is describing of society cycle very valuable for comprehension of social strategy. In this thesis cycles of societies are classified and selection pressures which may change society cycle are summarized.
Transport of solid fuels by ČD Cargo
Zrzavý, Jan ; Novák, Radek (advisor) ; Mervart, Michal (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to characterize the company ČD Cargo with special focus on the transport of solid fuels. It describes the historical development of this company, its present-day activities and services. Statistic part of this thesis contains time lines, defining the development of transport of solid fuels and its part in the overall transport. There is also an outline of an expected scenario of future solid fuel transport in connection with domestic resources depletion. Much consideration is also given to the unification of transport documents and European integration with a view to actions and objectives of transport policy concerning railway freight trafic.
Energetická politika EU a USA - komparace
Zrzavý, Jan ; Bič, Josef (advisor) ; Nováček, Jan (referee)
Práce porovnává energetickou politiku Evropské unie a Spojených států amerických. Hlavními kritérii porovnání jsou jednotlivé zdroje energie a jejich podíl na spotřebě, produkci, importu a exportu, dále problémy energetických politik, se kterými se tato centra potýkají a také cíle a nástroje těchto politik.

See also: similar author names
2 Zrzavý, Jakub
1 Zrzavý, Jaroslav
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