National Repository of Grey Literature 58 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Diagnosis of leishmaniases in humans and dogs
Černá, Eva ; Spitzová, Tatiana (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Leishmaniasis is a serious disease caused by parasites that affects both people and animals. In people, this disease has three forms, cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral form. Visceral form is lethal if it's left untreated. Leismaniasis is usually diagnosed by using regular parasitological methods based on histocytological analysis. In the last few years, there has been a considerable progress in serological and molecular diagnostics. This thesis focuses on description and comparison of the traditional and the new diagnostic methods. Attention is paid primarily to the new methods, therefore serological and molecular. These methods are compared by their sensitivity, specifity, field application potential, financial costs and time consumption. Both human and canine diagnostics are mentioned due to the fact that dogs are a significant reservoir. Key words leishmaniasis, diagnostics, parasitology, humans, dogs, method, molecular, serological, sensitivity, specifity
The differences in the virome of different populations of honey bee (Apis mellifera)
Kadlečková, Dominika ; Tachezy, Ruth (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is major pollinator for agriculture and vital for food production. Large number of viruses infecting A. mellifera have been discovered over the years, but it isn't yet known if they are pathogenic for their host. However, presence of non-viral pathogens like Varroa destructor can greatly increase their virulence and have fatal consequences for the colony. The aim of this study was to test and verify robustness of the method for virome detection on healthy honey bees from the Czech Republic. Last but not least we aimed to detect non-viral parasites and correlate their presence with detected viruses. We have successfully identified large number of viral sequences from different viral families. Viral composition was found to be influenced mainly by colony from where the honey bees were collected. That was mainly given by a large amount of bacteriophages in the samples. However, analysis of individual viruses, known to infect honey bee, indicated that viral prevalence and viral loads of specific viruses is quite different among individual honey bees from the same colony. Interestingly we were able to find highly diverse Lake Sinai viruses. We were able to observe correlations either between individual viruses or viral other non-viral pathogens. Further analysis is...
Occurence and diversity of amphibian trypanosomes
Poloprutská, Klára ; Votýpka, Jan (advisor) ; Brzoňová, Jana (referee)
The genus Trypanosoma represents well-known flagellates of order Trypanosomatida and class Kinetoplastea, which includes over 500 described species parasitizing on all classes of vertebrates. However, the best known and economically and medically most important are mammalian trypanosomes, especially human ones, which cause serious diseases in the world: sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America. But trypanosomes may also be found in blood of birds, reptiles, fish and amphibians. And exactly on trypanosomes of amphibians, whose diversity is surprisingly vast, is this thesis focused. However, many studies concentrate only on morphological description, which may not be the best in order to determine species, which may lead to distortion of information e.g. about species' life cycle, prevalence or host specificity. This thesis points to some ambiguities, but also to some more reliable experimental or in some cases molecular evidence dealing with individual aspects of life of trypanosome of amphibians. It also summarizes representatives of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate vectors of trypanosomes, among which leeches are considered to be the dominant vector in aquatic environment. Furthermore, some species of phlebotomes, mosquitoes and genus Corethrella are known to be...
Trypanosomes of Rodents and Lagomorphs
Valsová, Iveta ; Votýpka, Jan (advisor) ; Sádlová, Jovana (referee)
Trypanosomes (Kinetoplastea) are widespread endoparasitic protozoa commonly found in all vertebrate groups. Some species cause serious diseases in humans and livestock, while non- pathogenic species cause little or no apparent negative effects on the host and are mostly host- specific. The high host specificity of mammalian trypanosomes is found in the rodent- associated subgenus Herpetosoma. This study is focused on trypanosomes of rodents and rabbits. Experimental infections of rodents have shown that some trypanosomes are only able to infect their natural hosts. However, an exception to these highly host-specific species of the subgenus Herpetosoma is T. lewisi, which has been demonstrated not only in rodents but also in primates, including humans. Rodent trypanosomes, like rodents themselves, are cosmopolitan and their vectors are fleas. More than 50 species of trypanosomes have been gradually included into the subgenus Herpetosoma, mainly based on blood-stage morphology and their host specificity. However, with the development of biochemical and molecular methods, this number may change significantly. Key words: Trypanosoma, Herpetosoma, rodents, lagomorphs, morphology, development cycle, vectors
Blood parasites (namely genus Plasmodium) of game ungulates
Pařízková, Kamila ; Votýpka, Jan (advisor) ; Sádlová, Jovana (referee)
Haematozoa is a group of protozoa parasitizing in mammals, birds and reptiles that are characterized by development in blood cells. Some representatives of the Haematozoa class may cause serious human illnesses and losses in livestock and domestic animals. In ungulates there are three genera of blood parasites - Theileria, Babesia and Plasmodium. This thesis is focused mainly on the genus Plasmodium in forest ungulates. The vectors of these parasites in ungulates are mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Until recently, the area of Plasmodium in ungulates only reached the Old World, where P. cephalophi, P. bubalis and P. caprae were described. These species have traditionally been described on the basis of their morphology under a light microscope. The discovery of molecular methods has allowed a more detailed description and discovery of a new species of P. odocoilei in cervids in North and South America. The paper summarizes the present information related to the occurrence of blood parasites in forest ungulates. Key words: Plasmodium, Babesia, Theileria, ungulates
Leishmaniases and their vectors in the Middle East
Zelenková, Natálie ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases that remain major neglected tropical diseases of the world. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Middle East, with several countries reporting increasing incidence in recent years. The Middle East is a region of great political instability and the escalating conflicts in Syria, Yemen and Iraq have led to collapses of local healthcare systems. These countries have consequently seen many outbreaks of leishmaniasis. War is associated with refugee crisis that enables further spread of the disease to previously non-endemic areas. L. major and L. tropica are the main causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis and species of the L. donovani complex are the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis in this region. Many species of the genus Phlebotomus occur here, with P. papatasi and P. sergenti being among the most abundant proven local vectors. Rodents and dogs are considered to be the main reservoir hosts of the infection. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarize the occurence of leishmaniases in the Middle Eastern countries in the context of the current situation in this region.
Coevolution of avian ectoparasites in the tropics
Gajdošová, Magdalena ; Munclinger, Pavel (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Host-parasite associations are born by cospeciations or by host switches. Feather lice have traditionally been used as model parasites for studying these events and underlying ecological factors. By now tens of analyses have addressed comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies to study cospeciations and host switches in lice, however, these analyses are strongly biased towards the temperate zone. Tropical environment could provide new insight into the origin of host-parasite interactions, because it is ecologically unique. This work aims to supplement the knowledge of host-parasite associations in lice using coevolution analyses of two feather lice genera and their passerine hosts in tropical rainforest in Cameroon. It shows that lice in the tropics cospeciate rarely. To assess whether host switches are non-random and occur preferentially between hosts with specific traits, this work also analyses relations between parasite genetic distances and hosts' trait similarities. No effect of host morphology and spatial distribution was found. However, genetic distances of the lice strongly correlate with genetic distances of their hosts.
African rodents as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites.
Glanzová, Kristýna ; Sádlová, Jovana (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Leishmania spp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoa related to the Trypanosoma genus that are causative agents of leishmaniasis. Their life cycle alternates between mammalian hosts and insect vectors. The principal vectors are phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) that occur mostly in the tropics, however, several species range to the temperate regions. Various species of rodents serve as reservoir hosts of leishmania. In endemic localities, they represent most abundant mammals and their burrows are used as breeding sites of larval stages of sand flies. In this bachelor thesis I summarize available literature about rodents that serve as reservoir hosts of six human pathogenic leishmania species present in Africa. Several species of African rodents are regarded as reservoir host of L. major and one species (Ctenodactylus gundi) as a suspected reservoir host L. tropica. On the other hand, rodent infections caused by L. aethiopica, L. infantum and L. donovani should be still considered as accidental. In the case of Leishmania sp. from Ghana, reservoir hosts are still entirely unknown. All species of proven African rodent reservoir hosts share clustered distribution in colonies where animals live in high population densities.

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