National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Multiple sclerosis: Clinical and paraclinical markers of disease activity.
Srpová, Barbora ; Horáková, Dana (advisor) ; Taláb, Radomír (referee) ; Bartoš, Aleš (referee)
Multiple sclerosis is chronic, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorder of central nervous system. Currently, we have only limited markers of disease activity. From clinical markers, speech markers were analysed. Data from 141 patients and 70 healthy controls were evaluated. The most important results were detection of speech abnormalities in patients with minimal neurological disability (EDSS<2) and their correlations with global and regional brain atrophy. This work is predominantly concetrated on neurofilament light chain (NfL) as one of the most promising paraclinical biomarkers. NfL, especially level of serum NfL (sNfL), is considered to be a biomarker of future disease course, disease activity and effect of DMD (disease modifying drugs) therapy. The main aim was to clarify the position of NfL among others biomarkes and their potential benefit for routine clinical praxis. MRI data, clinical data and results of NfL measurements from 172 newly diagnosed patients with relaps-remiting MS (revised McDonald criteria 2017) from original SET cohort were analysed. Additionally, we compared levels of serum and CSF NfL with other biochemical parameters, such as lipidogram and markers of blood-brain permeability. We found sNfL as a marker of ongoing neuroinflammation and predictor of future brain atrophy...
Characteristics of gait impairment and possible therapeutic interventions in people with multiple sclerosis.
Novotná, Klára ; Kubala Havrdová, Eva (advisor) ; Čakrt, Ondřej (referee) ; Taláb, Radomír (referee)
Walking disorders are one of the most visible symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that is the most common cause of disability of young adults. Walking disorders are one of the most common motor problems that accompany this disease, which patients themselves perceive as the most limiting. Walking disorders can be caused by many symptoms of MS such as: muscle weakness, spasticity, sensory disturbances, visual disturbances, sphincter problems, cognitive dysfunction, fatigue and thermosensitivity. Measuring of various gait parameters (most often speed and endurance) also helps to monitor the effects of treatment and to evaluate the progression of the disease. Even in patients with minimal neurological symptoms it is possible to detect deterioration of gait parameters. Realized studies have shown that subjectively perceived improvement in gait after treatment with natalizumab can be objectified with the aid of assessment of walking parameteres. Similarly, a functional gait test can be used to assess the therapeutic response (and thus evaluate the cost effectiveness of treatment) to symptomatic treatment with fampridine. As a physiotherapist, I was also interested in the possibility of influencing...
Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis.
Lízrová-Preiningerová, Jana ; Kubala Havrdová, Eva (advisor) ; Vymazal, Josef (referee) ; Taláb, Radomír (referee)
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), a non-invasive imaging method, is based on an analysis of a near-infrared light deflected from tisssue layers, that provides detailed images of retinal structures. Nerve cells of the retina, that originate from neuroectoderm, reflect neurodegeneration of the central nervous system (CNS), as well as acute damage of nerve structures caused by optic neuritis. The dissertation first presents established imaging protocol and quality standards for SD-OCT imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS). In the following section we introduce SD-OCT as a biomarker in MS. In a multicentric cross-sectional study, we had shown, that a single time measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) has a predictive value for a risk of disease progression in the next five years. Patients with a thickness of RNFL in the lowest tercile of the studied population had a relative risk of disease progression 2x higher than patients in the highest tercile. The second presented study tests whether the history of optic neuritis (ON) in MS is a risk factor for neurodegeneration of RNFL in later years. The study confirmed that long term changes of RNFL thickness in eyes post-ON and in eyes with no history of ON are not different. Therefore, we conclude that both,...
Diagnostic markers in patients in early stage of multiple sclerosis
Hynčicová, Eva ; Laczó, Jan (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee) ; Taláb, Radomír (referee)
The aims of the thesis were to assess diagnostic markers for monitoring of the disease progression in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and laboratory markers of efficacy of the interferon beta (IFNß) therapy. This thesis includes 4 studies. The first study was focused on evaluation of cognitive impairment and its structural correlates in patients with CIS. Using comprehensive neuropsychological testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with volumetric analyses we found cognitive impairment in 18-37 % of CIS patients in almost all cognitive domains. Brain volume was reduced predominantly in fronto- temporal regions and the thalamus. Next, visuo-spatial impairment was associated with lower white matter volume in patients with CIS. The two other studies evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms, life satisfaction, health-related quality of life and their mutual relationships. In addition, one of these two studies evaluated structural correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms on brain MRI. Using a battery of specific questionnaires, we demonstrated depressive symptoms and anxiety in patients with CIS, lower life satisfaction, lower health-related quality of life and close mutual relationships. The quality of life was associated more with cognitive functioning than with disability in...
Influence of corticosteroids and movement disorder on development of osteoporosis in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)
Týblová, Michaela ; Kubala Havrdová, Eva (advisor) ; Vymazal, Josef (referee) ; Taláb, Radomír (referee)
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with impaired bone health in comparison to an equally healthy population, even already in patients at the onset of this disease. The main risk factors for development of osteoporosis in MS patients are known. The aim of the study was to find the relationship of the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) to the administered cumulative dose of steroids and to other risk factors in MS, mainly to the degree of motor deficit. Further goal was to evaluate the occurence of the risk of low-trauma fractures in multiple sclerosis patients.. The BMD and muscle mass was compared in MS patients (women and men) and control subjects, to examine the effect of main ones - physical disability and long-term glucocorticoid (GC) therapy on BMD. Clinical values of bone remodeling markers were evaluated in assessment of rate of bone loss in patients with multiple sclerosis long term treated with low dose of GC. Patients and methods: We used dual -energy X-ray absorptiometry for a measurement of BMD in 591 MS patients (455 females and 136 males) in 2004 and in cross-sectional longitudinal study published in 2014 with 474 patients (353 women and 121 men). Out of the whole study group body composition was evaluated in 250 MS females, 104 males and 247 healthy controls (193...
The quality of life of patients with disseminated sclerosis
Marčoková, Alžběta ; Mareš, Jiří (advisor) ; Pekárková, Hana (referee) ; Taláb, Radomír (referee)
The bachelor's work deals with quality of life of patients with disseminated sclerosis. It is trying to find the influence of chronic illness over the quality of life fřom the view of the patients themselves. It adverts to the impact that the illness has on the mental and physical part of their lives. It nears to public (laity or medics) the disorders and limitations which this illness can make the lives of patients worse. I chose and translated the questionnare MSIS - 29 for my research. The sample was made from the people who they diagnosed the illness disseminated sclerosis, 75 informants, 49 women nad 26 men, aged from 20 to 68. Interviews were filled in Domov sv. Josefa in Žireč near Dvůr Králové, in Rehamedica in Žacléř, in Pražské kongresové centrum during " The International Day of People witd disseminated sclerosis", in the Trutnov's hospital and by people in home care.

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