National Repository of Grey Literature 61 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Biofeedback in patients with balance disorders
Čakrt, Ondřej ; Jeřábek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Syka, Josef (referee) ; Hlavačka, František (referee)
This dissertation is providing evidence that rehabilitation with biofeedback improves postural stability in patients with poor balance. We used two methods of biofeedback during the rehabilitation of the patient groups, visual control and electrotactile stimulation of the tongue. The thesis is based on the body of five scientific publications. The introduction is explaining how postural stability is controlled and how this is assessed by posturografic examination. Discussed also is neurorehabilitation using biofeedback, in patients with poor balance. Throughout the first experiment, we studied the effect of rehabilitation using visual feedback in patients during the early postoperative period after resection of vestibular schwannoma. The results showed stability adaptation is accelerated, using visual biofeedback in patients who have early postoperative rehabilitation, when compared to patients who did not use biofeedback during the postoperative rehabilitation. In the second experiment, we focused on assessing the subjective visual vertical in patients with defined postural deformity - idiopathic scoliosis. Our results showed that patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) have an abnormal perception of subjective visual vertical when compared to age matched healthy individuals. This finding supports the...
Clinical and elektrophysiology longitudinal study of children with hereditary neurophathy Charlot-Marie-Tooth type 1A
Haberlová, Jana ; Seeman, Pavel (advisor) ; Syka, Josef (referee) ; Ambler, Zdeněk (referee) ; Vondráček, Petr (referee)
Hereditary peripheral neuropathy, known asCharcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) and with an incidence of 1:2500 -1:10 000, is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorder. Type CMT 1A is the most common form of CMT refering to the group of primary demyelinitateing motor and sensory peripheral neuropathies. CMT phenotype is clinically characterized by chronic slowly progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy with hypo or areflexia and mild to moderate acral sensory loss. The lower limbs are predominantly affected. The aims of this study were to describe the first and most common signs of CMT1A during the first decade of life, to characterize their progression, and evaluate the sensitivity of CMTNS (Charcot-Marie- Tooth neuropath scale) for CMT1A young children. Sixteen children aged 3 to 10 years with genetically proven CMT 1A were examined. All patients were clinically examined, underwent electrophysiological examination, and were scored by CMTNS. Eight were followed for up to two years. Our data shows that CMT 1A in children under the age of 10 years causes only a mild disability. Initial signs of CMT 1A were difficulty in heel walking (15/16, 93%) and lower limb hypo or areflexia ( 13/16, 81%). The test of heel walking can be easily used as a screening test for hereditary neuropathies in pediatrics....
The changes of hearing function during the postnatal development
Groh, Daniel ; Syka, Josef (advisor) ; Rokyta, Richard (referee) ; Dlouhá, Olga (referee) ; Valvoda, Jaroslav (referee)
8 přítomny spontánní otoakustické emise (SOAE). Amplitudy otoakustických emisí TEOAE, jejichž frekvenční spektrum leželo v rozmezí 0,5-8 kHz, se výrazně snižovaly s věkem. Vysokofrekvenční sluchová ztráta se tedy může odrazit ve snížení amplitudy TEOAE měřené na nízkých a středních frekvencích. Vyhodnocení sluchových ztrát v rozšířeném frekvenčním pásmu spolu se záznamem TEOAE a SOAE může napomoci detekci počínajících sluchových poruch v dětském věku, které nemohou být odhaleny klasickou audiometrií s frekvencí do 8 kHz. Ve studii byly dále hodnoceny audiologické charakteristiky dětí a mladistvích trpících tinnitem různé etiologie a porovnány s obdobnými vyšetřeními u kontrolní skupiny stejně starých dobrovolníků. U jednotlivých pacientů nebyla nalezena korelace mezi původem tinnitu a výsledky audiometrických testů, tj. tónovým audiogramem a výsledky záznamu evokovaných otoakustických emisí (TEOAE a DPOAE). Byl zjištěn pouze významně nižší výskyt SOAE (44,6 % uší) u mladých pacientů s tinnitem v porovnání s 62,5% uší v kontrolní skupině dětí a mladistvých. Nicméně byla pozorována silná závislost amplitud a frekvenčních charakteristik TEOAE a DPOAE na stupni sluchové ztráty bez ohledu na zdroj tinnitu. SUMMARY Experimental part Mechanisms of age-related hearing loss were studied in two rat strains. In aged...
Spatial choices of animals based on abstract visual stimuli: Configuration or shape?
Nekovářová, Tereza ; Bureš, Jan (advisor) ; Syka, Josef (referee) ; Kršiak, Miloslav (referee) ; Frynta, Daniel (referee)
Spatial cognition as a model for study of learning, memory and problem solving has a long history in neurosciences. This cognitive ability is used for several reasons. Firstly, the ability to form the inner representation of a space, to orient in an environment, to perceive positions of prominent objects and of other animals is essential for all mammals and birds. Thus it is natural for animals to perform such behavior even in experimental conditions. Secondly, it is possible to compare spatial cognition of different species in similar tasks. And thirdly, there are strong indices of the possible neuroanatomical substrate and mechanism underlying spatial cognition. There are different strategies of navigation in an environment, which could be distinguished by different criterions. They differ in the frames of reference in which the observer operates, i.e. whether the co-ordinates are centered in a subject (egocentric orientation) or whether the co-ordinates encode only the relations between objects and dominants in the environment and they are not dependent on observer (geocentric orientation). The navigational strategies also differ by the type of cues that are used for navigation. In allothetic orientation the subject employs external landmarks, which may be not only visual stimuli, but also the stimuli of...
Organization of the auditory cortex and changes in the auditory system in presbycusis.
Profant, Oliver ; Syka, Josef (advisor) ; Vymazal, Josef (referee) ; Chrobok, Viktor (referee)
2. Abstract The aim of my study was to identify specific features of the structure and function of neurons in the auditory cortex of rat and to analyze age-related changes in the inhibitory system (GAD 65 and 67) in the central auditory structures of the same species. Based on the findings in the animal model we focused on changes in the central part of the auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging human population that were examined by various MRI techniques (spectroscopy, morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI). We found that the most significant feature of neurons in the auditory cortex is the presence of the hyperpolarization-activated cation current that influences functional properties of neurons. The differences among neurons in different fields of the AC were based on their specific functional characteristics, with the tonotopy being the key factor of the AC structural organization. Aging of the auditory system has a negative influence on the speech understanding in which the processing of temporal parameters of the sound plays a significant role. In animal experiments we observed decreases of the enzymes GAD65 and 67 (that catalyze synthesis of the main inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA) in central parts of the auditory system. Inhibition is the key factor in coding and...
Music physiology, ergonomics and physical therapy in the health promotion, prevention and treatment of the playing related musculoskeletal disorders by musicians and its applicationin in the music education
Vencel, Miroslav ; Tichá, Alena (advisor) ; Tichá, Libuše (referee) ; Syka, Josef (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to describe the current state of knowledge and research on music physiology. The information on music physiology and musician`s medicine, ergonomics, physical therapy and neuroscience of music is presented with regard to its pedagogical use, with the goal of prevention and treatment of playing related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians. The creation of the good movement habits is considered for useful prevention. Therefore, a method of compensatory exercises is being developed, which was verified in the experimental part of this work. Positive influence of the therapy of postural disorders by means of the ontogenetical kinesiology and yoga came up to our expectations. In the didactic part we introduce educational programms aiming at better understanding of music physiology and training in using exercises in the self-treatment. KEYWORDS: music physiology, musician`s medicine, prevention and treatment of the playing related musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomics and neuroscience of music, compensatory exercises and movement stereotypes reeducation, professional music education
Memory and cognitive coordination impairment in rat models of neuropsychiatric diseases
Vojtěchová, Iveta ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Syka, Josef (referee) ; Hort, Jakub (referee)
The memory and spatial navigation are extremely important brain functions for humans, but they are often the question of life and death for animals. In humans, memory can be disrupted by various neuropsychiatric disorders. The patients suffering from Alzheimer's dementia (AD) have impaired working and long-term memory, spatial navigation, higher cognitive functions and social memory. The deficit of cognitive coordination (the skill to recognize the relevancy of incoming information) and disorientation belong to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. Intelectual disability appears in some patients with autism spectrum disorder. Unfortunately, it is not possible to cure these disorders efficiently because the etiology is not known in the majority of patients. The causes leading to development of these disorders could be revealed using animal models. This thesis contributes to the characterization of the cognitive skills disruptions - as well as other behavioral alterations - in selected rat models of AD (transgenic McGill rat, non-transgenic Samaritan rat) and schizophrenia (lipopolysaccharide model of early postnatal, or prenatal, bacterial infection). The thesis also discusses the validity and limitations of these models. Our results showed a severe deficit of spatial navigation, learning and...
Volumetry and laterality of CNS structures in animal experiments and in human (in health and disease)
Mrzílková, Jana ; Zach, Petr (advisor) ; Syka, Josef (referee) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee)
Our work is composed of part done on laboratory rat, part done on magnetic resonance images and autoptic CNS tissue in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control group. In the first part we observed volumetrically and stereologically morphological, right-left asymmetries of structures of CNS, gross marks of neurodegeneration and changes in the number of neurons and conditioned taste aversion (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, parabrachial nucleus, amygdalar complex). We measured under normal conditions and under chronic stress induced by corticosterone. Chronic stress is possible candidate for AD development in humans. We found that structural lesion is side specific (on the right) and it is bound rather to subcellular level and not to absolute neuronal numbers changes. In the second part we examined changes in the grey matter of the CNS (by automatic segmentation and manually) and changes in the white matter of the CNS (tractography) in patients with AD and in controls on magnetic resonance. In the autoptic tissue we focused on asymmetrical morphological changes in the planum temporale and neurohistological changes in its third neuronal layer. We found out that decrease of the hippocampal volume is not accompanied by cerebellar or pontine volume and that reorientation of images is not necessary for...
Changes in Brain Metabolism in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders Revealed by Quantitative Electroencephalography and Positron Emission Tomography
Kohútová, Barbora ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Syka, Josef (referee)
Low Resolution Brain Elecromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) is a method of quantitative EEG (QEEG), which permits 3D tomography of electrical brain activity. Positron emission tomography (PET) reflects changes of brain metabolism and regional blood flow. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the neurobiological correlates of changes in psychopathology during treatment of schizophrenia and depression, revealed by QEEG and PET, subsequently to evaluate the applicability of these two methods, and third to compare the mechanism of two therapeutic tools, antipsychotics and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) from QEEG point of view. The first part contains the theoretical information about disorders and therapeutic tools and the review of QEEG and PET findings. The empirical part is based on four articles (Tislerova et al., 2008; Horacek et al., 2007; Kopecek et al., 2011; Kopecek et al., 2008) and a common discussion constitutes the end part. In the study 1, we compared schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine or clozapine with antipsychotic-naive patients. We found changes of electrical activity in anterior cingulate and in temporo-limbic structures. In the study 2 we studied schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations treated by LF-rTMS. The clinical improvement was...

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