National Repository of Grey Literature 109 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Activation of neuroglia after status epilepticus induced by intracerebroventricular application of 4-aminopyridine in the rat.
Uttl, Libor ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Stuchlík, Aleš (referee)
Epilepsy is a chronic disease characterized by spontaneous epileptic seizures. One percent of the world population is affected by the epilepsy. The existence of proper models is crucial for study of distinct types of epilepsy. We decided to deeply describe the model of status epilepticus (SE) induction in an adult rat by the intracerebroventricular application of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). For description of this model we used the histology and immunohistochemistry methods, the western blot analysis focused on the microglial activation markers, and the series of behavioral tests to reveal the functional influence of SE in chronical experiment (8 months). We described the ability of the 4-AP to induce SE in this model. After SE, neuron degeneration and microglial activation appeared. The areas of degenerated neurons strongly corresponded to the regions with activated microglias. By the western blotting we demonstrated the oxidative stress by an increase of 3-nitrotyrosine already 2 hours after SE. Microglial activation detected by the immunohistochemistry correlated to the observed increase in IL-1β and CD68 production after SE. Considering these results we verified the functional influence of the SE in chronical experiment. We did not observed any significant changes of cognitive and motoric functions...
Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and spatial navigation
Dostálová, Magdalena ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Jiruška, Přemysl (referee)
Hundreds to thousands of new granule neurons are born every day in the hippocampus within the whole life. Inspite of intensive research of the last decades, their function remains unclear. Their participation in spatial memory and the ability of orientation is assumed. Results from behavioral tests like the Morris water maze, the radial maze and many other testing tasks, are often contradictory. Nevertheless, it is highly probable that neurogenesis plays a role in pattern separation and long-term relational memory. Further studies and especially reliable methods of ablation and detection are required for deeper insight into this issue.
Methodological aspects of active place avoidance task
Bahník, Štěpán ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Němec, Pavel (referee)
The active place avoidance task represents one of the methods of the study of animal cognition. In this task, a subject is put on a rotating circular arena and avoids invisible sector that is stable with respect to the room. Rotation of the arena means that the subject's avoidance must be active, otherwise the subject would be moved in the punished sector by the rotation of the arena and a slight electric shock would be administered. The experiment described in the present work explored the effect of variable arena rotation speed on the ability to avoid the punished sector. Rats in a group with a variable arena rotation speed learned to avoid the punished sector with the same speed and attained the same ability to avoid the sector as rats in a group with a stable arena rotation speed. The only difference between the two groups was found in a preferred position within the room. No difference was found between the two groups in the dark phase, where the rats could not use orientation cues in the room. Only one rat was able to learn the avoidance of the punished sector in this phase. The results of the experiment suggest that idiothetic orientation and interval timing are not crucial for learning of the avoidance of the punished sector. However, idiothetic orientation is sufficient for the avoidance of the...
Neurogenesis in the adult brain, its regulation and possible functions
Pištíková, Adéla ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Jiruška, Přemysl (referee)
In this thesis I examine neurogenesis in the adult brain. Neurogenesis takes place in two main neurogenic areas. One area is located at the side of the forebrain ventricle and the other in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The forebrain ventricle neurogenesis is important for olfactory discrimination and olfactory memory. In the hippocampus, its function is unclear, but there are several hypotheses about its possible significance. We assume it might function in pattern separation and also be involvedin preventing interference between memory traces. The last chapter I dedicate to the positive and negative regulation of neurogenesis. The manipulations enhancing neurogenesis include voluntary physical activity, enriched environment and SSRI antidepressants. The negative impact on neurogenesis is exerted among other factors by stress, irradiation and a cytostatic Temodal, which is used methodologiclly to block neurogenesis.
Early diagnosis of memory disorders in neurodegenerative disease
Kadlecová, Alexandra ; Hort, Jakub (advisor) ; Stuchlík, Aleš (referee) ; Vymazal, Josef (referee)
lncreased incidence and prevalence of dementi a syndrome is related to ageing of the population. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer disease (AD), which represents serious health, social and economical burden to the society. Current diagnostic criteria and research of AD tend to make a diagnosis of AD at the earliest stages or the disease, when the likelihood to influence the course ofthe disease is the highest and extension of the period with high quality of life can be expected. AD begins by impairment or mediotemporal structures - amygdala and hippocampus. Atrophy in these critical brain structures is well detectable before the onset of dementia syndrome and can be manifested by Hrst clinical symptoms. Presented PhD thesis deals with detection of these early signs of AD - spatial disorientation, emotional agnosia and behavioural disturbances or patients with mild cognitive impairrnent, the condition understood as prodromal stage of AD. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Analysis of cognitive functions in recombinant inbred strains of rats produced by crossbreeding of SHR and BN Lx. lines
Hatalová, Hana ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Pravenec, Michal (referee)
This MSc. thesis deals with dissecting the link between memory, genetics, and metabolic syndrome. Memory is a very complex behavioral trait, probably influenced by innumerable factors. For this experiment HXB/BXH rat recombinant inbred lines (n= 30) and their parental strains (n=2) were used to be trained in the hippocampus dependant spatial learning task called Allothetic Active Place Avoidance. Rats were to memorize sector of a rotating circular arena, which they were to avoid, being motivated by receiving an electric shock upon entering the forbidden sector (4 training sessions; shock sector on the North, 1 retrieval session (no shock), and 3 reversal sessions, to-be-avoided sector facing South; each session 20-min long, retrieval 10-min). Control experiments to exclude impact of motor or sensory abnormalities were run in a form of open-field test and beam-walking test. Correlation with metabolic phenotypes was conducted in an online database of known HXB/BXH phenotypes (GeneNetwork.org). The results showed that differences in learning were significant between the groups (p<0.05); correlation analysis indicated no putative link between selected traits related to metabolic syndrome and memory in rats. The genetic analysis showed a suggestive locus on chromosome 20 for a learning parameter, and...

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