National Repository of Grey Literature 45 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Coincidental finding of hyperglycemia in children and adolescents
Feigerlová, Eva ; Lebl, Jan (advisor) ; Houšťková, Hana (referee) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Stárka, Luboslav (referee)
Donedávna se v souvislosti s diabetem v pediatrické populaci uvažovalo téměř výhradně O diabetu mellitu I. typu (Tl DM) s jeho typickou klinickou symptomatologií zahrnující polyurii, polydipsii, váhový úbytek a případně projevy ketoacidÓzy. Nyní na diabetes mellitus dětského věku a adolescence pohlížíme jako na heterogenní onemocnění zahrnující skupinu poruch s rozdílnou patogenezí, průběhem a odpovědí na léčbu (ADA 2005). V některých případech je klinická symptomatologie velmi sporá a může se omezit jen na náhodné zjištění mírné hyperglykémie v rámci vyšetřování pro různé klinické stavy. Náhodnou hyperglykémií se rozumí zvýšená glykémie nad referenční mez u jinak zdravého, klinicky asymptomatického jedince, stanovená z náhodného žilního odběru nalačno za bazálních podmínek (např. v rámci preventivní prohlídky) či během zátěžové situace (např. v průběhu akutně probíhající onemocnění, v souvislosti s chirurgickým zákrokem či úrazem). Dle definice (ADA 2005, WHO 1999) se za fyziologické považují hodnoty plazmatické glykémie nalačno nižší než 5,6 mmol/I za předpokladu dodržení podmínek preanalytické přípravy. Normální hodnota glykémie měřená 2 hodiny po standartní zátěži v průběhu OGTI (orálního glukózového tolerančního testu) je nižší než 7,8 mmolll. I přes existenci jasných kritérií nepovažuj í některé...
Pendrin in the pathogenesisof congenital hypothyroidism
Banghová, Karolína ; Lebl, Jan (advisor) ; Límanová, Zdeňka (referee) ; Houšťková, Hana (referee) ; Stárka, Luboslav (referee)
Pendrin is an anion transporter that is expressed in several organs. In the thyroid gland, pendrin is localized at the apical pole of thyrocytes and it is responsible for the iodide efflux from thyrocytes into the colloid in the follicular lumen where iodide is organificated. The extrathyroidal expression was shown in the inner ear, kidney, placenta and mammary gland. Carriers of mutations in the pendrin gene (PDS, SLC26A4) display variable phenotypical features following the autosomal recessive manner of the inheritance: combined thyroid and hearing affection (Pendred syndrome - OMIM274600), nonsyndromic autosomal recessive neurosensory deafness (DFNB4 - OMIM600791) or isolated enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA - OMIM603545). The thyroid affection is usually manifested as euthyroid or hypothyroid goitre in the second decade of life. In a minority of patients, dyshormonogenesis is present at birth, and the disease is diagnosed in the frame of the nation-wide neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism.
Genetic causes of medullary thyroid carcinoma and Hirschsprung's disease
Václavíková, Eliška ; Bendlová, Běla (advisor) ; Dvořáková, Lenka (referee) ; Stárka, Luboslav (referee)
Genetic causes of medullary thyroid carcinoma and Hirschsprung's disease Abstract Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) are classified as simple neurocristopathies, i.e. diseases linked to neural crest-derived cells. MTC is derived from parafollicular cells of the thyroid and HSCR is characterized by absence of enteric ganglia in the gastrointestinal tract. The RET proto-oncogene is only expressed in neural crest-derived cells, including parafollicular cells and enteric neurons. The RET encodes a transmembrane tyrosinekinase receptor that plays an important role during proliferation, differentiation and cell survival, and activates many signaling pathways. If the strictly regulated activation fails, e.g. due to mutations in the specific gene locations, the RET becomes a highly effective oncogene. Activating germline mutations in the RET proto- oncogene lead to hereditary forms of MTC, whereas sporadic forms of MTC are caused by somatic mutations in the tumor tissue. On the contrary, inactivating mutations induce migration failure of ganglion cell precursors during the development of enteric nervous system and result in the development of HSCR. In rare cases, the coexistence of both diseases is caused by mutations with a dual gain-of-function and loss-of-function character....
The incidence of thyroid in selected regions of the Czech Republic in terms of saturation with iodine
Dvořáková, Marcela ; Zamrazil, Václav (advisor) ; Topolčan, Ondřej (referee) ; Stárka, Luboslav (referee) ; Čáp, Jan (referee)
24 9. SUMMARY 1. Natural sources such as water or soil contain iodine in low amounts in the Czech Republic. 2. Clinical manifestations of iodopenia were severe and occured in certain geographical areas in the past. 3. Iodization of table salt started in the fifties of the last century as a result of extensive epidemiological research and since then it has significantly improved iodine saturation in general. 4. Further steps in iodine prophylaxis in the mid-nineties of the 20th century have improved iodine saturation according to ICCIDD/WHO criteria. 5. Resolution of iodine deficiency does not represent, however, a closed chapter. 6. Individuals at risk, such as pregnant or breastfeeding women and patients on a salt- restricted diet, are worthy of public health concern. 7. There needs to be increased awareness of chronic excess of iodine with respect to an increasing prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disorders. 8. There is a need to continue education of the general population focused on adequate iodine intake from various foods (see products, milk) and to maintain a daily iodine intake in the "optimal ranges". Based on the international criteria, the Czech Republic is iodine sufficient country. This happened due to a multidisciplinary collaboration coordinated by the Regional Iodine Deficiency Council...
Effects of acute starvation and of type 2 diabetes mellitus upon insulin resistance and substrate utilization in obese subjects
Duška, František ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Mourek, Jindřich (referee) ; Stárka, Luboslav (referee)
Very-low calorie diet or even total short-term fasting is widely used in clinical practice in order to improve metabolic compensation of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although benefits of weight reduction are well proven in T2DM, much less is known about effects of acute starvation, during which the interruption of the afflux of energy substrates is not followed by a major change of body composition. We hypothesize the improvement of insulin effects on glucose metabolism in T2DM as these patients may lack the key metabolic responses which impair insulin sensitivity in lean, non-diabetic subjects. Moreover, we assume according to "thrifty genotype hypothesis" that protein wasting during starvation will be positively related to insulin effects on glucose disposal and negatively related to insulin antilipolytic and antiketogenic effects. In the light of this we designed an observational, prospective, in-hospital study, comparing the effects of 60 hours fast on various aspects of insulin resistance, endocrine regulation and metabolism in 10 patients with T2DM and 10 obese controls without diabetes (OB).
Metabolic syndrome and steroid spectrum
Pospíšilová, Hana ; Stárka, Luboslav (advisor) ; Hána, Václav (referee) ; Fingerová, Helena (referee)
Sex steroids influence the storing of fat, and differences in the distribution of fat are a typical secondary sexual characteristic. Androgens act on fatty tissues in males either directly through stimulation of the androgen receptor or indirectly through aromatization of the estrogen receptor. Androgens can be classified as aromatizable or non-aromatizable. Testosterone (T) is the main aromatizable androgen, while its metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a non-aromatizable androgen that acts only through the androgen receptor. It is precisely this difference in having activity only through the androgen receptor that has given rise to the hypothesis concerning the differing effects of DHT and T on body composition, with DHT possibly being responsible for male-type fat distribution. As part of my post-graduate studies we analyzed the dependence serum levels of T and DHT on age, as well as changes in their ratio with age. Further, we sought relationships between aromatizable and non-aromatizable androgens and metabolic and anthropometric parameters. We also focused on following any changes in steroidogenesis in obese males. We showed that before puberty the dominant androgen is rather DHT than T, that the fDHT/fT ratio during the life of adult males is constant, and that there is no evidence of a reversal...

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