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Women and the Question of Irish Independence
Blažková, Olga ; Skřivan, Aleš (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with women who played an active part in the struggle for Irish independence in the years 1890-1921. The women who I mainly focused on weren`t mere auxiliaries to men. Even though Ireland at that time was a highly conservative country, where the role of both sexes was strictly divided, these women managed to challenge social conventions. They founded their own national organizations, which (perhaps in their size, definitely in their prominence) had then no equivalent in other European countries. They used every opportunity to assert themselves in political as well as military fields and some of them even took up high political posts. Therefore besides depicting the actual activities of women on behalf of the national movement, this work is trying to evaluate the mutual relationship between nationalism and the question of women`s emancipation. The main events of the Anglo-Irish conflict then provide the background for this work. According to this the diploma is divided chronologically into three main chapters, which deal with the periods before and after the first world war. That is because the world war contributed largely to the breakout of the Easter uprising and the following rise of a mass revolutionary movement in Ireland. The diploma ends with gains of a dominion...
A contribution to problems of the succession on the English throne after Henry VIII Tudor
Chlubna, Jan ; Kovář, Martin (referee) ; Skřivan, Aleš (referee)
Henry VIII, king of England, is recorded in history, especially in historical awareness of general public by his family life, record-setting six marriages, divorce of the first of them, beheading of two of his wives and separation of the Church of England from Rome. The aim of this thesis was to get "below the surface" of simplifying interpretation of reign of Henry VIII, to analyze, how king was trying to solve in both home and foreign policy a question of succession after himself on the English throne and establishing position of his house. Henry VIII was found in a very unstable and difficult position concerning the security of Tudor dynasty on the English throne for the main duration of his reign. So, this was one of reasons, why Henry in desire for having son decided to divorce with his first wife; this had extraordinary diplomatic and international consequences in difficult time of Italian wars. The whole situation led in legal and in the end religious separation of the Church of England from Rome. Matrimonial diplomacy and elimination prospective home rivals were usual instruments of securing of ruling dynasties both in England and the other European countries. But Henry VIII came in the period of divorce crisis with new instrument in making his dynastic policy. His "first minister" Thomas Cromwell...
To the character and importance of the Portuguese activities in Morocco 1415-1769
Staněk, Karel ; Skřivan, Aleš (referee)
The seize of the city of Ceuta (1415), strategically very important port in Gibraltar strait, began the period of Portuguese territorial expansion to Morocco. One of the main efforts of the Portuguese was to secure the safety for coastal areas of southern province of Algarve, which is primary connected with expansion to Morocco from the geographical point of view. The deep religious exaltation as one of the consequences of reconquista penetrated through all invasions to North Africa and based them from the ideological point of view. The peace treaty concluded in 1471 with future ruler of Muslim kingdom of Fes, resulted in subjugation of continuous north Moroccan interior in the provinces of Habt and al-Gharb. Between 1541- 1550 Portuguese evacuated under the pressure of sharifs majority of their possessions in Morocco. Until 1769 kept only in Mazagan.
Anglo-French relations in the Wars of Religion in France in the second half of the 16th century
Dundrová, Milena ; Skřivan, Aleš (advisor)
The period oť the Wars of Religion in France and the following reign of llcnry IV havc always drawn attcntion of French and ťoreign historians. All main sources and period documents have been edited. Specialized revues started to bc published and ample syntheses about the Early Modem History of France have been written since the second half of the 19th century. Neverthclcss. French historians have always preferred to study the interna! dcvclopment of the statc and have 1arge1y omitted its relations with foreign countrics. ln thc internationa1 contcxt. the interrelationship with Spain has been accented. because of more apparent int1uence of the Spanish Empíre to the French policy than that oť England or any other power. Excepted several old works at the turn oť the 19th and the 20th century the Ang1o-French relations in the period have not almost been studied in Frcnch Historiography. Thc wars oť Rcligion in France covering the period ťrom 1562 to 1598 did not mean only an interna! struggle between Catholics and Huguenots, but onc oť the cont1icts betwcen Catholics and Protestants in religiously divided Europe during and aťtcr the Reformation. Together with the Revolt in the Netherlands, they reprcscnted a ťocus of international policy in the second half oť the 16th century. For France the key relation was...
European great powers and the partition of Poland
Sautin, Viktor ; Skřivan, Aleš (advisor) ; Kovář, Martin (referee)
I research in this study the question of the three partitions of Poland in the years 1772, 1793 and 1795, which created one of the main problems of international politics in the second half of the 18th century. This problem had its importance for the whole Central and Eastern Europe. The backwardness of Poland and its growing anarchy in this country initiated the struggle of three Great Powers - Russia, Austria and Prussia. Following this process, Poland, the second largest kingdom in Europe, was erradicated from the political map and for more than a century its independence was destroyed, which caused serious problems in the future. By destruction of Poland the three Great Powers liquidated a buffer zone between themselves and gained common borders. I concentrated myself on the analysis of the internal conditions in Poland and on the international circumstances, which influenced the development on the way to the partition. I tried in my paper to answer some basic questions concerning the internal development in Poland, importance of the partiton for participating Great Powers and for the European power-ballance.
Egypt in the years of British patronage, 1882-1899. The contribution to the history of British emipre in the 19th century
Valkoun, Jaroslav ; Kovář, Martin (advisor) ; Skřivan, Aleš (referee)
Primarily, Great Britain occupied Egypt due to strategic and defence reasons (a route to India) in 1882; commercial and financial interests appeared secondary. At first the British Government again and again alleged that soldiers would leave as soon as they would establish the order and tranquillity and would renew the authority of the Khedive. Her Majesty's Government repeated this allegation more then sixty times until the WWI broke out. Between the years 1882 and 1914 Egypt was neither a colony nor protectorate de iure, nevertheless the British Consul-General in Cairo administrated the country in a de facto colonial way; the Khedive symbolised only the formal Head of State. During the ensuing decades, the British realised economic, politic, and administrative reforms. Improvement of irrigation system meant the greatest achievement. In the nineties, the reorganization of the Egyptian Administration caused the rise of the nationalist movement, which in 1906 culminated in Dinshaway Incident that forced the well-known proconsul Lord Cromer to leave Egypt. The Sudan always influenced Egyptian events. In 1885 the Mahdi and his followers conquered Khartoum and the rest of the Sudanese territory. Thirteen years later the Mahdists were routed by the British-Egyptian army at the Battle of Omdurman and than both...
Bosnian crisis 1908-1909
Kodet, Roman ; Skřivan, Aleš (advisor) ; Kovář, Martin (referee)
The Bosnian crisis is one of the most important milestones on the way to the First World War. It is because this act of Austria-Hungary totaly destroyed a chance to create a Austro-Russian rapprochement on the Balkans. From this crisis the rivalry between these two empires fully started and it was this rivalry, which caused the collapse ofEuropean diplomatic system in July 1914. The aim ofthis work is to analyze all the circumstances and conditions, which influenced the decision of Vienna to take this action and how and why this action ruined the long termed policy of Austro-Russian entente.
Liberal party 1886-1906. Contribution to british history on the edge of the 19th and 20th century
Skokan, Peter ; Kovář, Martin (advisor) ; Skřivan, Aleš (referee)
Roky 1886 - 1906 boli pre existenciu Liberálnej strany zásadným obdobím. Táto etapa vnútrostraníckej krízy bola poznačená nielen politickými, ale hlbokými osobnými spormi medzi kolegami. Práve ony boli koniec koncov jedným z dôvodov tak dlhého trvania vnútorného napätia a nedorozumení. Prvé náznaky pre liberálov katastrofických rokov prelomu 19. a 20. storočia sa ukazovali už v prvej polovici osemdesiatych rokov v konfliktoch medzi whigmi a radikálmi, ktoré ukazovali dokonca ideologickú nejednotnosť strany. Liberálom sa nakoniec osudnou stala írska otázka, ktorá ich rozdelila a Gladstoneove zaryté a bezhlavé trvanie na jej prioritnom riešení trvajúce až do jeho rezignácie z postu predsedu vlády na jar 1894. (...)
Leopold II., Grand Duke of Tuscany, and bonification of Maremma (1824-1859)
Kovaříková, Lenka ; Skřivan, Aleš (advisor) ; Novotný, Lukáš (referee) ; Županič, Jan (referee)
The thesis describes a period of the government of Leopold II Grand Duke of Tuscany and his affiliation to the swampy territory along the Tuscany coastline called Maremma and its bonification. He was able to change fundamentally the most underdeveloped areas of his country during thirty years of his government. He succeeded even though political changes during the revolutionary years of 1847-1849, and though his government was finished by the unification of Italy and the incorporation of Tuscany into the newly established Kingdom of Italy, which was the goal of Italian risorgimento. This work further describes biography of Leopold II in short, his policy focused on overall development of Tuscany, and last but not least life fates and the principal works of his three closest collaborators - personalities with major influence at the realisation of the bonification works - Vittorio Fossombroni, Gaetano Giorgini and Alessandro Manetti. The thesis describes the bonification works in Maremma themselves, their organisation and results achieved. Part of the bonification overall plans of Leopold II was construction of the road network as well, with necessity of numerous bridges over canals and regulated watercourses. It was also necessary to solve the health problems in the region, especially malaria, where...

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