National Repository of Grey Literature 123 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Effects of cholesterol on the dynamic behavior of muskarinic acetylcholine receptor in the cell plasma membran.
Michal, Pavel ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
- EN The muscarinic acetylcholine M2 receptor that was originally identified as the predominant muscarinic receptor subtype in the heart is also widely distributed in the central nervous system. Its signal transduction is effected by both the βγ dimer of heterotrimeric G-protein that activates potassium or inhibits calcium conductance and the αi subunit that preferentially inhibits cAMP synthesis. However, M2 muscarinic receptors expressed in CHO cells (CHO-M2) directly activate signalling pathways of all three major subclasses of G-proteins, i.e. preferred Gi/o subclass and at concentrations higher than needed for standard inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP synthesis also Gs and Gq/11 subclasses to cause stimulation of cAMP synthesis and accumulation of inositolphosphates (IP), respectively . In the present experiments we investigated influence of membrane cholesterol content on activation of signalling pathways of these three G-protein subclasses in CHO-M2 cells by carbachol, a non-hydrolysable acetylcholine analogue. Treatment of cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased cell and membrane cholesterol content by 74% and 39%, respectively, and incubation in the presence of cholesterol-saturated methyl-β- cyclodextrin increased cholesterol content by 169% and 137%, respectively . Cholesterol...
Blood-testis barrier - role in the regulation of spermatogenesis in pathological conditions.
Častulová, Kristýna ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Background The aim of this thesis was to bring the theoretical part of the latest findings on the structural composition and functionality of the blood-testis barrier and its importance in working with biological agents that would influence the development and maturation of gametes. In the experimental part, the possible impairment of the complexity of the blood-testis barrier by application of model xenobiotics - busulfan - was studied by histopathological analysis. Methods Adult male Wistar rats, which were treated with busulfan intaperitoneally, were used for the experiment. The first group of animals received 1 dose of busulfan (40 mg / kg body weight). The second group of rats were given two doses of busulfan (10 mg / kg body weight) 21 days apart (days 1 and 21). Animals were divided into 6 groups and sacrificed 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 70 days after the second busulfan dose. Immediately after sacrificing rats, the abdominal cavity was opened and the testicles removed. After removal of adipose tissue, the length and weight of both testes were recorded. The testicles were then subjected to histological processing. The prepared histological preparations were evaluated under a light microscope. Results The archival histological material of the Department of Biological and Medical Sciences was used...
Neoadjuvant therapies in patients with oesophageal carcinoma and the effect of therapy on renal function
Koláčková, Pavla ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Candidate: Mgr. Pavla Koláčková Supervisor: Doc. RNDr. Vladimír Semecký, CSc. Title of the diploma thesis: Neoadjuvant therapies in patients with oesophageal carcinoma and the effect of therapy on renal function The aim of this work is to compare the formulas used to estimate the glomerular filtration. The selected group of patients are patients with early oesophageal cancer who are treated with neoadjuvant therapy. This therapy consists of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which consists of cisplatin and fluorouracil. Cisplatin has nephrotic effects. Methodology strives to describe as accurately as possible the current condition of the patient. The patient's characteristics consists of a biochemical analysis, a anamnesis of the patients and an analysis of the renal function. The effect of comorbidities and concomitant pharmacotherapy on renal fiction is monitored. Results of this work provide a comparison of individual calculations. An individual renal anamnesis has been created for each patient, including a comparison of individual glomerular filtration estimates. The overall number of patients is affected by an unfavourable prognosis, involvement of some them in clinical trials and a rapid...
Histological processing of endoscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
Tůmová, Monika ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kudláčková, Zděnka (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis is a brief introduction to the complex processing of the tissue samples obtained by endoscopic biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract with a special focus on the treatment of endoscopic specimens obtained by endoscopic resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection. My work consists of a brief introduction to the gastrointestinal tract histology and description of therapeutic endoscopic methods such as endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection, and radiofrequency ablation. Additionally, an overview of the most important histochemical staining methods (hematoxylin - eosin, PAS reaction with Schiff 's reagent, and alcian blue with Schiff' s reagent), as well as immunohistochemical detection of antigens in the tissue samples is included. This work is focused on the widely used antigens CD31, podoplanin (D2-40), smooth muscle actin (SMA), and p53. At the end of the thesis, I discuss the importance of correct sampling techniques and accurate histological processing of endoscopic specimens for determining a proper diagnosis, an essential prerequisite for selecting of an appropriate therapeutic method. Keywords: endoscopic resection, gastrointestinal tract lesion, hematoxylin-eosin, PAS reaction, alcian blue, immunohistochemical detection
Origin, migration and differentiation germ cell in the embryonic and fetal period of human development.
Kovačičová, Denisa ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
The aim of the thesis is to make a review of academic literature and databases related to topics of embryonal and fetal development, morphology and physiology of male gonads. This work describes also the genetic determination of sex development. One chapter is dedicated to describing two methods (histological method and FISH), which are used to diagnosing diseases related to mistakes in ontogenesis. The last chapter deals with two diseases - the Klinefelter syndrome as the most frequent numeric gonosomal aberration of men, and persistent Müllerian duct syndrome as a defect of development of men with normal karyotype. Finally, the complexity of topics of this thesis is discussed. Key words: germ cells, spermatogenesis, sex determination, Klinefelter syndrome, persistent Müllerian duct syndrome
Cystic fibrosis
Riedrová, Michaela ; Herink, Josef (advisor) ; Semecký, Vladimír (referee)
Bachelor thesis deals with the topic of cystic fibrosis. It is a serious autosomal recessive hereditary disease. Cystic fibrosis can not be cured, it is only possible to treat the complications of this disease. The thesis is divided into the theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on the occurrence of cystic fibrosis in the world and in the Czech Republic, history, the principle of inheritance of cystic fibrosis and there are presented the symptoms and complications associated with cystic fibrosis. There are also presented diagnostic methods and principles, therapy of the disease. In the practical part of the bachelor thesis there is a public survey on the topic of cystic fibrosis. The survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire. Key words: cystic fibrosis, mucoviscidosis, CFTR gene, hereditary diseases, chlorides in the sweat
Polycystic kidney disease autosomal dominant
Knesplová, Romana ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited chronic disease which is characterized by the cysts formations. It's the most frequent congenital of kidney disease. Incidence occurs at about 1 : 1000. The presence of multiple cysts cause the wastage of functional parenchym, kidneys get bigger and deform. The disease progression is slow and at the beginning it is asymptomatic. The symptoms appear in the course of life by every person affected by the disease. Between the typical symptoms belong the backpain in the lumbal area, frequent urinary infections, haematuria and anterial hypertension. In the course of time the complications increase and the disease gets worse as the result of the functional glomerulus decrease. ADPKD almost everytime flow to chronic renal insufficiency at adulthood. The disease is mostly diagnosted at the higher age, because of the asymptomatic phase at the beginning. However the accidental sonography can reveal the disease at the childhood, because the cysts already begin to form. Diagnostic is done by imaging metods - mostly sonography and by radiologic methods - computer tomography. These metods serve for the prove of the multiple cysts and increase of the kidneys. Discovery of these symptoms is an indication for the molecular genetic examination which prove...
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and epilepsy: mutual relationships
Čuchalová, Marcela ; Herink, Josef (advisor) ; Semecký, Vladimír (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Science Author: Marcela Čuchalová Supervisor: doc. MUDr. Josef Herink, DrSc. Title of diploma thesis: The hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis and epilepsy: mutual relationships The content of the diploma thesis is an overview of the anatomy and physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HHG). Further chapters are devoted to the influence of epilepsy on HHG function, the effect of HHG hormones on epileptic activity itself. The effect of anti-epileptics on HHG functions will also be elucidated. The second part of the diploma thesis deals with separate chapters - catamenial epilepsy and epilepsy during pregnancy. Keywords: antiepileptic drugs, gonadotropin, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin, sex hormones, temporal lobe epilepsy.
Experimental myocardial damage affected the administration of D-penicillamine.
Blažková, Edita ; Semecký, Vladimír (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Bc. Edita Blažková Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Vladimír Semecký, CSc. Title of thesis: Experimental myocardial damage affected the administration of D-penicillamine D-penicillamine is a substance with a wide range of use for the treatment of various diseases, especially Wilson's disease. This standard chelator is known for its ability to bind copper nonspecifically. The first aim of the thesis was to describe in detaile histopathological changes of the myocardium exposed to the effect of catecholamine, namely isoprenaline and to compare these changes with the structure of control group myocardium. The main aim was to verify potentially cardioprotective effect of D-penicillamine on the model of catecholamine induced damage. The description of histological changes complements the extensive results of in vitro and in vivo analysis. The experiment was performed on adult male Wistar Han rats, which were divided into six groups. The first group was used as a control and only received saline, the second one and third one received D-PA alone at doses of 11 and 44 . The fourth group received only ISO in a single dose of 100 . The fifth and sixth groups were premedicated...

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1 Semecký, Václav
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