National Repository of Grey Literature 74 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Development of voltammetric methods for detection of cholesterol and its prekursor lathosterol
Bláhová, Eva ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Fischer, Jan (referee)
Cholesterol is an irreplaceable sterol found in animal cells, lathosterol is one of its precursors. The first aim of this Thesis is to develop a method for determining cholesterol after liquid- liquid extraction from milk matrices by differential pulse voltammetry on a boron doped diamond electrode in the presence of perchloric acid in acetonitrile where cholesterol provides an irreversible anodic response at the potential between +1300 and +1600 mV depending on the water content. The second aim is a study of the voltammetric behavior of lathosterol on boron doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry mainly in perchloric acid but also sodium perchlorate where lathosterol provides an irreversible anodic response at the potential of about +1650 mV on the boron doped diamond electrode and at the potential of +1350 mV on a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of other acids - sulfuric, nitric and phosphoric - on the response of lathosterol was also investigated. The influence of the water content in the measured solution and the influence of the polarization rate on the response of lathosterol were studied. Furthermore, the calibration dependence of lathosterol was measured using differential pulse voltammetry after optimization of its...
Determination of amino acids on copper-based electrodes
Kohoutová, Nela ; Dejmková, Hana (advisor) ; Schwarzová, Karolina (referee)
In this Thesis, electrochemical behavior of the flow detector made of the thin copper wires was studied. This detector is suitable for the determination of amino acids without preliminary derivatization; in this case, tyrosine was used as the model compound. Suitable activation procedure for the copper electrode was found, which assured the stable baseline with lowest possible background current. It was also found that the optimum detection potential for tyrosine determination is 0.3 V. It was shown that the mass of the copper electrode does not influence the response of the electrode. Nevertheless, according to the comparison of the theoretical and found charge, the electrochemical reaction is not quantitative. Therefore, the electrode works in amperometric and not in coulometric mode. Finally, linearity of the current response in dependence on the tyrosine concentration was confirmed in the concentration range from 1.0·10-3 mol·dm-3 to 2.0·10-5 mol·dm-3 . Limit of detection was 1.5·10-5 mol·dm-3 and limit of quantification was 5.1 ·10-5 mol·dm-3 .
Development of voltammetric methods for detection of phytosterols on carbon-based electrodes
Zelenský, Michal ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Fischer, Jan (referee)
The aim of this diploma thesis was to develop an electrochemical method for three phytosterols, namely stigmasterol β-sitosterol and ergosterol using voltammetry techniques on glassy carbon electrode and boron doped diamond electrode. The work builds on previous results, where it was shown that the electrochemical oxidation of phytosterols requires perchloric acid in acetonitrile. When this acid is used, a dehydration reaction occurs. Calibration dependences were measured here for all phytosterols in an environment with a water content of 0.43%. The stability of the signal with increasing distilled water content was further investigated. Then the calibration dependences in the increased water content were measured again. If we want to use HPLC-type separation techniques, we must first find out how the phytosterols will behave in this environment, and therefore the signal stability on the buffer content was investigated. The buffers used were phosphate and acetate buffer. Subsequently, the concentration dependence was measured in an environment with a higher content of phosphate buffer. Furthermore, the possibility of detecting two phytosterols at once was investigated. Key words: dehydration, glassy carbon electrode, boron doped diamond electrode, oxidation, phytosterols, voltammetry
Development of electroanalytical methods for detection of bile acids possessing 7α hydroxyl group
Jelšíková, Kristýna ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Dejmková, Hana (referee)
This master's thesis contains a study of electrochemical processes of selected bile acids possessing 7 hydroxyl group (cholic, chenodeoxycholic and −muricholic). The measurements were performed on boron−doped diamond electrode in the non-aqueous medium of acetonitrile and perchloric acid (water content 0.55 %) by cyclic voltammetry. It is known that the electrochemical activity of 7 bile acids is increased by a dehydration reaction between perchloric acid and the 7 bile acid. The subject of the study was the stability of the voltammetric response of chemically activated bile acids in the region of negative potentials. It was found that the presence of oxygen in the measured solution is an important factor for obtaining the cathodic signal of 7 bile acids. It probably performs a regenerative function; the product of the electrochemical reduction is re-oxidized in its presence, which leads to an increase in the voltammetric response. At the same time, it is important that the direction of the scan in cyclic voltammetry first proceeds to positive values. A potential of +2.0 V (vs. Ag/AgNO3 in acetonitrile) must be reached for the HO● radicals to be formed. It is these radicals that presumably lead to the formation of the product(s) of bile acids electrochemical oxidation that can be subsequently...
Study of redox and adsorption features of bile acids on hanging mercury drop electrode
Yershova, Polina ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Gajdár, Július (referee)
Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism and are important biological surfactants. The curved shape of their chains allows the cyclization of molecules, and the formation of a supramolecular structure. The goal of this thesis was to study the electrochemical and adsorption behavior of selected bile acids: lithocholic, deoxycholic and cholic acids. The measurements were carried out in the medium Brittonův-Robinson buffer:methanol in the ratio 9:1 using cyclic voltammetry and AC voltammetry methods and measuring the dependence of the differential capacitance Cd on the applied potential E. A hanging mercury drop electrode was used as a working electrode. The measurements showed that bile acids are adsorbed on the surface of the electrode and organizing themselves in self assembled monolayers (SAM). In our case we have observed formation of 2D condensed layers as specific form of SAM. Transfer techniques were used to demonstrate bile acid adsorption. A study of the behavior of lithocholic acid as a function of different pH values showed that only at pH 10.0 to 12.0 2D 2D condensation occurs, i. e. that at pH values in the range of 2.0 to 9.0 it is another type of adsorption. On AC voltammograms, there are a maximum of two areas in which peaks occur: the first is around -0.2 V and the...
Influence of surface termination of boron-doped diamond electrode on the electrochemical behaviour of phenol and its derivatives
Nedvěd, Michal ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Gabriel, Jiří (referee)
This thesis is devoted to the study of electrochemical oxidation of meta-substituted phenolic substances on a boron-doped diamond electrode. In the first phase, it was studied the effect of pH on their electrochemical oxidation by the methods of classical "direct current" voltammetry (DCV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The study was performed on three types of boron doped diamond (BDD) surfaces: polished, anodic and cathodically activated. In the second phase, attention was paid to the Hammett correlation to study the effect of the substituent on the potential of electrochemical oxidation of selected phenolic compounds. Among the substituents studied were (-H, -CH3, -OCH3, -(CH2)2COOH, -COOH a -NO2). In general, the oxidation potentials were lower in the basic medium than in the acidic medium on all studied surfaces. An exception was the studied phenolic acids, which could not be detected in an alkaline medium on the O-terminated BDD, probably due to electrostatic repulsion between the partially negative electrode surface and the acid dianion. The highest correlation coefficient for the dependence composed of all studied phenols was obtained for the polished and H-terminated surface at pH 11, ie the dissociated form of phenolic substances. The high electron density leads to easy...
Study of redox reactions and adsorption of 4-nitrophenyl triazole labeled nucleosides and cresols on boron doped diamond electrodes for development of electroanalytical methods
Vosáhlová, Jana ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Havran, Luděk (referee) ; Navrátil, Tomáš (referee)
In this work, the application of boron-doped diamond electrodes with various surface pre- treatment were tested on selected oxidizable and reducible model compounds, specifically para and ortho cresols and 2'-deoxycytidine and 7-deazaadenosine labeled by 4-nitrophenyl triazole. The aim of the study was the investigation of electrochemical and adsorptive processes with respect to the development of electroanalytical methods of detection of the selected compounds, or utilization of boron-doped diamond electrodes as detectors in liquid-flow systems. Cresols were used as the model oxidizable compound. On O-terminated and polished boron- doped diamond electrodes, cresols provide oxidation signal owing to their oxidation to methylphenoxy radical at comparable potentials as on other carbon-based electrodes used as a reference in this work, i.e., glassy carbon electrode, pyrolytic graphite electrode, and carbon paste electrode. These carbon electrode materials show relatively high propensity to adsorption of reaction products, while such adsorption is minimal on boron-doped diamond. In situ anodic activation allows for a rapid regeneration of boron-doped diamond surface prior to each scan. A differential pulse voltammetric method that was developed with a detection limit of 0.61 mol∙l-1 to 2.97 mol∙l-1...
A new approach to the electroanalysis of primary bile acids and related steroids
Klouda, Jan ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Skopalová, Jana (referee) ; Vyskočil, Vlastimil (referee)
In this doctoral thesis, a novel method for the determination of primary bile acids cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid is presented. Bile acids play various vital roles in the mammalian body. Moreover, their determination is extremely helpful in liver and biliary disease diagnosis and management. These saturated organic compounds lack strong chromophores and fluorophores in their structure, and thus are usually hard to detect in spectroscopy. For this reason, either instrumentally advanced but expensive methods, such as mass spectrometry, or less reliable enzymatic methods are commonly employed in bile acids quantitation. Hence, the demand for simple and reliable methods for their determination is strong. Bile acids are also known to be virtually inert for direct electrochemical oxidation. Herein, a simple method for their chemical activation for electrochemical oxidation on bare electrode materials was developed, optimized and applied to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid determination. The activation is based on a dehydration reaction of a primary bile acid with 0.1 mol L-1 HClO4 in acetonitrile (water content 0.55%) that introduces double bond(s) into the originally fully saturated steroid core. This naturally increases the electron density in the structure, and thus allows electrochemical...
Voltammetric Determination of 7-Dehydrocholesterol as a Biomarker of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrom
Zárybnická, Adéla ; Schwarzová, Karolina (advisor) ; Nesměrák, Karel (referee)
The aim of this thesis was the development of a voltammetric method for the determination of 7-dehydrocholesterol as a biomarker of congenital disease Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. The concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol in plasma will increase hundred-fold to hundreds to thousands µmol L-1 in patients suffering from Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. The determination of 7-dehydrocholesterol was carried out in artifical serum in this work, which was prepared to mimic the conditions of postnatal diagnosis of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. 7-dehydrocholestrol provides a well developed voltammetric signal at approximately +0.8 V vs. Ag/AgNO3 in acetonitrile. Differential pulse voltammetry with optimized parameters was used for the determination of 7-dehydrocholesterol. The presence of protein in artificial serum (human serum albumin) resulted in an unacceptably high detection limit of the method (178 µmol L-1 in artificial serum). Therefore, human serum albumin was eliminated from the artificial serum samples by precipitating it with acetonitrile and subsequently centrifuging the resulting suspension. At the same time, the ratio of aqueous and organic components in the studied medium was also adjusted with acetonitrile to achieve an optimal voltammetric response of 7-dehydrocholestrol. With regard to the...

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See also: similar author names
3 SCHWARZOVÁ, Kateřina
3 Schwarzová, Kateřina
2 Schwarzová, Klára
8 Schwarzová, Kristýna
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