National Repository of Grey Literature 36 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Music Structure and Time Perception
Becková, Adéla ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Lukavský, Jiří (referee)
The diploma thesis follows the bachelor's thesis Music and Time Perception (Becková, 2017). It focuses on time perception in music. It reviews current influential theories and models in the research of time perception, and also time perception models in relation to music, ie models based on the existence of internal time clocks and models based on attentional, memory and other dynamic processes. It also focuses on the psychological aspects of the metrum, rhythm and other musical characteristics in relation to time perception. Possible use of research findings in the field of time perception in music is also mentioned. In the experimental part I applied specific findings from the current research of time perception to short acoustic stimuli in the range of suprasecond intervals using reproduction as experimental paradigma. The filled- duration illusion, the divided time illusion and an effect of tone pitch were demonstrated. The findings from the experiment could be used in future research in the field of music and time perception. Klíčová slova: time perception, music perception, psychology of time
Music Structure and Time Perception
Becková, Adéla ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Lukavský, Jiří (referee)
The diploma thesis follows the bachelor's thesis Music and Time Perception (Becková, 2017). It focuses on time perception in music. It reviews current influential theories and models in the research of time perception, and also time perception models in relation to music, ie models based on the existence of internal time clocks and models based on attentional, memory and other dynamic processes. It also focuses on the psychological aspects of the metrum, rhythm and other musical characteristics in relation to time perception. Possible use of research findings in the field of time perception in music is also mentioned. In the experimental part I applied specific findings from the current research of time perception to short acoustic stimuli in the range of suprasecond intervals using reproduction as experimental paradigma. The filled- duration illusion, the divided time illusion and an effect of tone pitch were demonstrated. The findings from the experiment could be used in future research in the field of music and time perception. Klíčová slova: time perception, music perception, psychology of time
Cannabinoids and Time Perception
Popova, Anastasia ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Honc, Ondřej (referee)
Interval timing (i.e.the perception of time in the seconds-to-minutes range) allows various animal species including humans to estimate duration of elapsed time. This process can be disrupted by cannabinoids and most often it is subjectively perceived as time deceleration. This work will describe the main models of interval timing, neuroanatomical structures involved in this process, and the main neurotransmitters. The results of studies examining the effect of cannabinoid on the interval timing, possible explanations according to the particular models, and the interaction between the cannabinoid and dopaminergic systems will be described as well. Keywords: interval timing, time perception, cannabinoids, dopamine
Ontogenesis of episodic memory in preschool children
Píšová, Martina ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Petrásek, Tomáš (referee)
Episodic memory enables us to remember and recall life events from the past. Episodic memory is a specific type of long-term declarative memory, which undergoes changes in ontogeny. To examinate of episodic memory, "episodic-like memory model", was developed. This model focuses on three basic components of episodic memory: "What happened", "Where did it happen" and "When did it happen". The aim of this diploma thesis is to develop and to validate of particular tests of episodic memory with consideration for their feasibility for preschool children. In order to study episodic memory we used an "episodic-like memory model" and experiments which focused on: children's verbal ability, differentiation of two perspectives during remembering of events and timing memories on an autobiographical axis. We aimed to inspect the effect of age on performance in these tests, possible links between performance in these experiments and the effect of level and the three components of episodic memory on number of errors made. In our dataset we found a significant effect of the age of children in Sentence repetition test and in test of Object collection in the virtual house, in the same test we found a effect of the level on number of errors. We also found a significant correlation between correct responses in verbal...
Relative numerosity discrimination in primates
Moravcová, Anna ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Petrásek, Tomáš (referee)
This work is focused on numerical competence in primates specifically focusing on relative numerosity, one of the many aspects of these cognitive abilities. Relative numerosity is an ability to discriminate a larger quantity from a smaller amount or smaller quantity from a larger amount and could be classified as one of the easiest numerical competence. In this work I have summarized the present knowledge of numerical competences in primates, which have been so far studied only in a few species of primates, most of them was rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). In the experimental part I focused on the research of relative numerosity in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). The goal of my work was to find out whether macaques are able to solve the problem of relative abundance with different types of stimuli. Another goal was to find out whether they are able to generalize information about relative abundance and whether they can apply it for new design of the task. The results confirm that macaques possess the ability of relative numerosity and are able to abstract stimuli that are differing in their character. This proves that they are not learning to recognize a particular stimul, but are able to use this numerical skill on any type of stimul. I also found out that...
Default Mode Network: Ontogeny
Jarmar, Jiří Kryštof ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Moravcová, Simona (referee)
Default mode network is a functional network system in a brain, comprising of other sub- components. It is activated during tasks focused on the inner monologue, mentalization, episodical memory or self-reflection. The DMN activity is generally described as default mode functioning of the brain in absence of external stimuli, on the other hand its activity is inhibited during the presence of it. This thesis focuses on the main factors and changes that occur during ontogeny of DMN from birth to adulthood, mainly in structural and functional connectivity and anticorrelation relationships with other brain networks. After a general characterization of DMN, the first part focuses on general characterization of functional brain networks and statistical methodology of measuring their relationships and maturity. It follows by the description of important events in brain development and identification of main anatomical regions of DMN. The most important part is the last one, which provides observations of comparative studies of DMN between children and adults. Here we describe main changes and trends in ontogeny of DMN. Key words: Default mode network, functional network, fMRI, ontogeny
Effect of chronotype and time of assessment on the results of cognitive tests
Baranyaiová, Katarína ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Kulišťák, Petr (referee)
Navrhovaná štúdia sa zaoberá výkonom jedinca v kognitívnych testoch, ktoré sú bežnou súčasťou kognitívneho vyšetrenia a sú kľúčové pre stanovenie kognitívneho deficitu neurologických a neuropsychiatrických ochorení ako sú Alzheime schizofrénia a ďalšie poruchy kognitívnych funkcií. Keďže k vyšetrovaniu pacientov môže dochádzať v rôznom čase v priebehu dňa, je nesmierne dôležité stanoviť, či môže čas testovania chronotyp testovaného ovplyvniť kognitívny výkon klinicky významnou mierou. Cieľom tejto štúdie je stanoviť, či chronotyp ovplyvňuje kognitívne funkcie, hlavne pracovnú pamäť, pozornosť a psychomotorické tempo v súvislosti s časom testovania u zdravých dobrovoľníkov. Taktiež u vybraných testových metód stanoviť, či sú ich výsledky závislé na ohľadom na subjektívnu preferenciu participanta a dentifikovať batériu testov vhodnú pre vyšetrovanie kognitívneho deficitu nezávisle na chronotype jedinca a čase testovania. Najskôr boli participantom zadané dotazníky MEQ na určenie chronotypu. Cieľom bolo identifikovať skupinu dobrovoľníkov dvoch extrémne vyhranených chronotypov, u ktorých druhej fáze experimentu sledovali výkon v kognitívnych testoch testech ( ich preferovanú a nepreferovanú dobu. Použitím neparametrických testových metód boli nájdené signifikantné rozdiely medzi sovami vtáčatami a tiež medzi...
Laterality in social and locomotory behaviour of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica)
Kunclová, Kristýna ; Špinka, Marek (advisor) ; Nekovářová, Tereza (referee)
The aim of this diploma thesis is to find out whether pigs exhibit laterality in social behavior, especially the laterality of rotational movements in game behavior and social interactions. We aimed also to explore how this laterality is influenced by other factors, especially the possibilities of playful behavior in ontogenesis, personality and others social and non-social factors. Alternatively, whether the degree of laterality determined varies depending on the social situation (game / aggression) and whether is influenced by the litter. I have investigated this behavior for 64 pigs in 16 litters from videotapes of their social behavior. For each pig, I recorded the playing element and the preferential side. For individual game elements I did not find any preference for rotation at the population level and only a slight tendency for individual laterality. For social game elements, I have shown a weak population tendency to prefer left side, but only for a group of more playing pigs. The main contribution of this work is the symmetry found in the implementation of individual game elements and, on the contrary, the observed laterality at the population level for social game behavior. Since the laterality of playful behavior has not yet been investigated, it is possible that this symmetry is...
Inter-individual differences in behaviour of laboratory rats
Rudolfová, Veronika ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Sedláček, František (referee)
Number of studies report that even when experimental animals are subjected to the exact same conditions, they differ in their behaviour. If these differences were stable in time and across several experimental procedures, we could talk about personality. This diploma thesis studies inter-individual differences in behaviour of laboratory rats (Long Evans strain) in a series of experiments conducted in early ontogeny and in adult age. Apart from analysing inter-individual differences in behaviour and personality of experimental animals, this thesis has two main aims. The first aim is assessing stability of inter-individual differences in behaviour throughout ontogeny. The second aim is to explore possible link between inter-individual differences in behaviour and performance in cognitive tests. We confirmed the existence of inter-individual difference in behaviour in laboratory rats. In this thesis we were, however, not able to assess personality of experimental animals. The differences in behaviour were best described by behaviour in Open field test and Elevated plus maze test. Our results also show marked differences between successive trials of these experiments. We also report that performance in Active allothetic place avoidance is not linked to performance in Morris water maze, even though both...
Social cognition in birds Testing under laboratory conditions
Vondráčková, Nikola ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Fuchs, Roman (referee)
The thesis focuses on avian social cognition and its experimental methods in laboratory environment. Social cognition is the ability to know each other based on individual experience. Perception, attention, reasoning, memory and communication are the necessary cognitive competence of social cognition. Some cognitive domains are exclusively in social cognition - for example communication, theory of mind etc. Species of birds living in social groups constitute the social environment in which individuals respond to each other. Research subject of this thesis consists of these social interactions. Emphasis is placed mainly on parrots and corvids. The aim of this study is to review methods which have been used in order to test social cognition as well as critical evaluation of these methods. Key words: social cognition, cooperation, competition, laboratory tests

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