National Repository of Grey Literature 58 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Smart biomaterials for connective tissues regeneration
Hefka Blahnová, Veronika ; Filová, Eva (advisor) ; Maxová, Hana (referee) ; Motlík, Jan (referee)
Connective tissues are characterized by significant volume of extracellular matrix. Their main role is to provide a mechanical support and protection to other body organs. This thesis is focused on regeneration of bone, cartilage and osteochondral defect. In the experimental part we observed viability and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In vitro we evaluated the potential of PCL scaffold with addition of growth factors, bone xenograft with biomimetic peptides, collagen I composite with bioceramics and a titanium alloy with nanostructured surface. During following in vivo study, we implanted a cell-free scaffold made of PCL, calcium phosphate and IGF-1, bFGF, TGFβ1 and BMP-2 to osteochondral defect. Unfortunately, addition of growth factors resulted in pathological inflammatory process despite clear beneficial effect in vitro. Likewise, the biomimetic peptide sequences promoted osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Addition of certain bioceramics influenced the scaffold morphology in the manner of pore size. However, we did not observe any effect of the surface characteristics on cell behavior. The cells were influenced rather by certain material. On the other hand, surface modification of titanium scaffold by anodic oxidation revealed that the most suitable...
Vascular and osseous cells in polymer structures for tissue engineering
Filová, Elena ; Bačáková, Lucie (advisor) ; Maxová, Hana (referee) ; Motlík, Jan (referee) ; Kromka, Alexander (referee)
Artificial vascular and bone prostheses are engineered as bioinert, not allowing cell attachment and growth. Our aim was to prepare materials based on natural and synthetic polymers that could modify the surface or create the bulk material of prostheses, and test their bioactivity in vitro. We prepared fibrin assemblies of various thicknesses and evaluated the adhesion, growth and differentiation of endothelial cells (EC) on these layers. We observed increased cell spreading on twodimensional fibrin assemblies and improved cell growth and maturation on thick fibrin gels. Fibrin coated with collagen I, or fibronectin, increased the adhesion area and the proliferation activity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Synthetic polymers were based on an inert block copolymer of poly(DL-lactide) and polyethylene oxide (PDLLA-b-PEO) in which 5% or 20% of the PEO chains were grafted with Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Gly oligopeptide, a ligand for cell adhesion receptors. Grafting oligopeptide peptide to the cell non-adhesive copolymer restored adhesion and growth of VSMC, even in a serum-free medium. Synthetic polymers could therefore serve as artificial extracellular matrix analogues for vascular tissue repair and regeneration. Our study with human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells cultured in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)...
Pathogenesis of Huntington's disease in peripheral tissues
Vachútová, Dominika ; Motlík, Jan (advisor) ; Fiala, Ondřej (referee)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with manifest of symptoms around the age of 40. This disorder is caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in huntingtin gene, Huntingtin (Htt) is a protein expressed in almost all tissues. HD is mainly characterized by neurodegeneration in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex, but mutation in huntingtin have also serious influence on peripheral tissues. Many studies show serious heart dysfunction, weight loss, altered glucose homeostasis, impairment of energetic metabolism and muscular atrophy in HD patients and animal models. Till now, mechanism of these changes has not been sufficiently described and there is nor an adequate treatment yet. Key words: Huntington's disease, mutated huntingtin, CAG repeat, peripheral tissue
Huntington's disease modeling and stem cell therapy in spinal cord disorders and injury
Hruška-Plocháň, Marián ; Motlík, Jan (advisor) ; Bjarkam, Carsten (referee) ; Roth, Jan (referee)
Neurological disorders affect more than 14% of the population worldwide and together with traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries represent major health, public and economic burden of the society. Incidence of inherited and idiopathic neurodegenerative disorders and acute CNS injuries is growing globally while neuroscience society is being challenged by numerous unanswered questions. Therefore, research of the CNS disorders is essential. Since animal models of the CNS diseases and injuries represent the key step in the conversion of the basic research to the clinics, we focused our work on generation of new animal models and on their use in pre-clinical research. We generated and characterized transgenic minipig model of Huntington's disease (HD) which represents the only successful establishment of a transgenic model of HD in minipig which should be valuable for testing of long term safety of HD therapeutics. Next, we crossed the well characterized R6/2 mouse HD model with the gad mouse model which lacks the expression of UCHL1 which led to results that support the theory of "protective" role of mutant huntingtin aggregates and suggest that UCHL1 function(s) may be affected in HD disturbing certain branches of Ubiquitin Proteasome System. Traumatic spinal cord injury and Amyotrophic Lateral...
Manipulating the mammalian oocyte and embryo - Biological and epigenetic aspects
Fulková, Helena ; Hozák, Pavel (advisor) ; Hampl, Aleš (referee) ; Motlík, Jan (referee)
CONCLUSIONS . By antibodies against ďfferent covalent histone modifications and 5-methylcytosine, we have partialty characterised the epigenetic changes taking place during the oocyte mauration and in early mammalian embryogenesis in the mouse and pig, respectively. o We have also characterised thc epigenetic repogramming activities of cytoplasts derived from oocytes at different stages of maturation after somatic cell nuclear transfer. . We have evaluated the epigenetic effec$ of selected procedures that are currently used for embryo production. . Finally, we have developed a new cryopreservation scheme for oocyte nuclear material storage. orrr research is engaged in the development ofnew bíotechniques as well as elucidating and characterising the epigenetic pÍocesses that take place during normal and abnormal embryogenesis. Abnormal embryonic development is for example often observed in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. These techniques can also be potentially used not only in human medicine but also for valuable livestock and endangered species preservation Oy e.g. interspecies nuclear transfer). Especially in human meďcine, attention to the ethical issues associated with these techniques must be paid. It is also clear tbat many biological problems still do exist and these should not be...
Phenotypic study Huntington's disease TgHD minipigs: Appearance and progress of reproductive and biochemical changes
Bohuslavová, Božena ; Motlík, Jan (advisor) ; Roth, Jan (referee) ; Petr, Jaroslav (referee) ; Krylov, Vladimír (referee)
Huntington's disease (HD) is one of the incurable and fatal diseases. HD belongs to the monogenic neurodegenerative diseases. According to the number of the CAG repetitions in the gene coding huntingtin, the onset of the disease is in childhood (5%), in the middle age, which is the most common (90%) and in the older age (5%). Beginning of the disease is manifested by changes in behavior; including problems with coordination and movement. Later, there is a psychological change. The disease leads to death. Until now, there is no effective curative treatment. In 2009, we created a model of the transgenic minipigs (TgHD) carrying the N - terminal part of the human mutant huntingtin (mtHtt) at our Institute in Liběchov. The number of offsprings and the resemblance in physiology and morphology between the pig (Sus scrofa) and humans (Homo sapiens) give us opportunities not only to study changes not only in central nerve organs, but also in peripheral tissues. The reproductive problems of TgHD boars were observed as the first phenotypic changes. Therefore, my work focuses at first on a study of the reproduction parameters of TgHD boars as well as ultrastructural, immunocytochemical and biochemical changes in testes and spermatozoa. In PhD thesis, I described in details the reproductive defects in TgHD...
Testicular Degeneration of Transgenic Porcine Model of Huntington's Disease
Skřivánková, Monika ; Motlík, Jan (advisor) ; Roth, Jan (referee) ; Petr, Jaroslav (referee)
Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an extended (≥36) CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Its hallmark is brain athrophy, but huntingtin is widely deposited in all tissues of the body, most notably in the brain and testes. Its pathogenic effect is conditioned by the formation of cytotoxic forms of aggregates and fragments, which occur in both brain and peripheral tissues. Testicular atrophy has been demonstrated in postmortem samples from human patients with Huntington's disease and in transgenic mouse models. We investigated reproductive decline in a large animal model of Huntington's disease. A transgenic (tgHD) minipig model was created by inserting a lentiviral vector into the genome of a pig. Vector contained a truncated form of the N terminal part of huntingtin gene. Boars of this transgenic line showed a reduced ability to produce offspring from 13 months of age. We confirmed apoptosis of seminiferous epithelial cells and Sertoli cells, and a production of morphologically damaged spermatozoa, which were unable to efficiently fertilize the oocyte under in vitro conditions. We found a reduction of mitochondrial metabolism parameters in the sperm of tgHD boars. These changes were not dependent on the age of the boars., It is directly related to the...
Porcine models for Huntington disease
Růna Vochozková, Petra ; Motlík, Jan (advisor) ; Bohačiaková, Dáša (referee) ; Fulková, Helena (referee)
The causative role of the huntingtin (HTT) gene in Huntington's disease (HD) has been identified more than 25 years ago. The extension of CAG repeat stretch over 39 repeats in exon 1 of one HTT allele results in full penetrance of this neurodegenerative disorder. While the identification of the causative mutation raised hopes that development of the therapeutic compound will be easily achievable, the patients and their families are still waiting for treatment until now. The main reason for that might be the complex cellular function HTT that makes the determination of the pathologic mechanism difficult and the development of treatments even more challenging. Although a lot of different animal models have been generated until now, establishing a suitable model has still not been achieved yet. Due to its anatomy, physiology, and genetics, the minipig seems to be a suitable candidate for neurodegenerative disease models. Indeed, the existing Transgenic (Tg) Libechov minipig model manifests signs typical for HD in patients, but on the other hand significant inconsistencies have also been observed. The finding of malformation that partially shows the situation in human patients is true for both, the male reproductive tract as well as for the brain. The reason for this might be the fact the genetic...

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