National Repository of Grey Literature 20 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Neurocognitive profiles from relatives of patients with psychotic illness
Voráčková, Veronika ; Mohr, Pavel (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Bezdíček, Ondřej (referee)
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that significantly impairs patients' lives. Problems with returning to normal functioning, such as self-reliance, social life, academic or work performance are largely due to severity of one of the major symptoms, cognitive deficit. Some neurocognitive changes can be observed in most of the patients; however, the form of deficit varies greatly. It can be a mild reduction in performance or a global deficit affecting wide range of routine daily activities. Research showed that cognitive deficit can be clearly found even in prodromal phase and often persists beyond acute phase. Early detection of psychotic symptoms and timely intervention can mitigate negative impact of full-blown illness. Despite the growing amount of information on genetic or environmental risks, etiology of schizophrenia remains still poorly understood. Currently, the focus is on endophenotypes, i.e., heritable traits associated with an illness. Research is interested on high-risk groups, either individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms or relatives of patients with the same genetic background. High-risk individuals are also siblings who share not only genes, but also family and socioeconomic background. The results of studies examining cognitive deficit in schizophrenia remain very...
Dissociation: Phenomenology, Pathophysiology and Relation to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Raszka, Michal ; Praško Pavlov, Ján (advisor) ; Papežová, Hana (referee) ; Libiger, Jan (referee)
The aim of this study was to investigate dissociative symptoms in OCD from many angles. This is the context in terms of psychopathology, prediction of therapeutic effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), neuropsychology (with emphasis on inhibitory processes), the structure of personality, and neurobiology. The work offers a model of neurobiological correlates of blending dissociation and OCD, which has been experimentally validated parts.
Histomorphological, biochemical and behavioral profile of animal models of schizophrenia
Kubešová, Anna ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Druga, Rastislav (referee)
The presented work focuses on the animal models of schizophrenia. The general part is dedicated to describing histomorphological and biochemical changes in patients with schizophrenia and basic classification and description of animal models of schizophrenia. The results of 3 studies that deal with histomorphological, biochemical and behavioral abnormalities in the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia and in the pharmacological model of schizophrenia induced by the administration of substances that affect the serotonergic system are presented in the special part. In the study No. 1 we demonstrated that the early immune stimulation in rats leads in adulthood to changes in the brain and plasma levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activation of kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, hypertrophy of astrocytes, reduction of hippocampal volume and decrease of tyrosinhydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The findings of this study support the hypothesis of an important pathophysiological role of the early immune stimulation in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In the study No. 2 we verified the application of tryptamine (psilocin) and phenylethylamine (mescaline) hallucinogen as phenomenologically valid animal model of schizophrenia....
Changes in Brain Metabolism in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders Revealed by Quantitative Electroencephalography and Positron Emission Tomography
Kohútová, Barbora ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Syka, Josef (referee)
Low Resolution Brain Elecromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) is a method of quantitative EEG (QEEG), which permits 3D tomography of electrical brain activity. Positron emission tomography (PET) reflects changes of brain metabolism and regional blood flow. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the neurobiological correlates of changes in psychopathology during treatment of schizophrenia and depression, revealed by QEEG and PET, subsequently to evaluate the applicability of these two methods, and third to compare the mechanism of two therapeutic tools, antipsychotics and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) from QEEG point of view. The first part contains the theoretical information about disorders and therapeutic tools and the review of QEEG and PET findings. The empirical part is based on four articles (Tislerova et al., 2008; Horacek et al., 2007; Kopecek et al., 2011; Kopecek et al., 2008) and a common discussion constitutes the end part. In the study 1, we compared schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine or clozapine with antipsychotic-naive patients. We found changes of electrical activity in anterior cingulate and in temporo-limbic structures. In the study 2 we studied schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations treated by LF-rTMS. The clinical improvement was...
New Neurophysiological Indicators Measuring, Monitoring and Evaluating in Selected Psychiatric Disorders
Šóš, Peter ; Höschl, Cyril (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Hájek, Milan (referee)
There is increasing amount of new knowledge in neuropsychiatric research, partially as a result of application of new neurophysiological methods of quantitative electroencephalography. This is because these techniques have good temporal resolution, are relatively non-invasive and economical. Different experimental paradigms and electroencephalographical analytical techniques are reviewed, with their potential applications in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. In the theoretical part the principles of some methods of quantitative electroencephalography, especially are described: EEG coherences, QEEG cordance and LORETA. Next chapter contains basic information about panic disorder and major depressive disorder followed by findings in functional imaging studies which are associated with the selected psychiatric disorders. Separate section is devoted to the prediction of antidepressant response. The empirical part of the thesis consists of a set of the five original papers about application of QEEG methods in a population of psychiatric patients (Bareš et al., 2010; Kopeček et al., 2008; Kopřivová et al., 2009; Šóš et al., 2008; Šóš et al., 2013). In Study 1, we followed the localization of EEG sources by means of brain electromagnetic tomography with low resolution (LORETA) in patients with panic...
Interactions of pharmaceuticals with humic acids
Libiger, Jan ; Enev, Vojtěch (referee) ; Klučáková, Martina (advisor)
The bachelor thesis is focused on interaction of drugs with humic substances, which are part of organic soil matter. The results would help in understanding the behavior of drugs in soil and other natural systems. Three drugs were selected. Humic acid was selected as a sorbent, which was extracted from lignin, the lower one is assumed to be the same as that in organic soil. Based on a comparison of the measurement results using the UV-VIS method, it was determined how much the acid of the given drug is able to absorb and how much it is released back into the water. The theoretical part deals with the information about soil organic matter, with the information about humic substances, with the information about drugs such as ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazol or sulfapyridine. Furthermore, the theoretical part deals with methods of analysis.
Histomorphological, biochemical and behavioral profile of animal models of schizophrenia
Kubešová, Anna ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Druga, Rastislav (referee)
The presented work focuses on the animal models of schizophrenia. The general part is dedicated to describing histomorphological and biochemical changes in patients with schizophrenia and basic classification and description of animal models of schizophrenia. The results of 3 studies that deal with histomorphological, biochemical and behavioral abnormalities in the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia and in the pharmacological model of schizophrenia induced by the administration of substances that affect the serotonergic system are presented in the special part. In the study No. 1 we demonstrated that the early immune stimulation in rats leads in adulthood to changes in the brain and plasma levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activation of kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, hypertrophy of astrocytes, reduction of hippocampal volume and decrease of tyrosinhydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The findings of this study support the hypothesis of an important pathophysiological role of the early immune stimulation in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In the study No. 2 we verified the application of tryptamine (psilocin) and phenylethylamine (mescaline) hallucinogen as phenomenologically valid animal model of schizophrenia....
New Neurophysiological Indicators Measuring, Monitoring and Evaluating in Selected Psychiatric Disorders
Šóš, Peter ; Höschl, Cyril (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Hájek, Milan (referee)
There is increasing amount of new knowledge in neuropsychiatric research, partially as a result of application of new neurophysiological methods of quantitative electroencephalography. This is because these techniques have good temporal resolution, are relatively non-invasive and economical. Different experimental paradigms and electroencephalographical analytical techniques are reviewed, with their potential applications in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. In the theoretical part the principles of some methods of quantitative electroencephalography, especially are described: EEG coherences, QEEG cordance and LORETA. Next chapter contains basic information about panic disorder and major depressive disorder followed by findings in functional imaging studies which are associated with the selected psychiatric disorders. Separate section is devoted to the prediction of antidepressant response. The empirical part of the thesis consists of a set of the five original papers about application of QEEG methods in a population of psychiatric patients (Bareš et al., 2010; Kopeček et al., 2008; Kopřivová et al., 2009; Šóš et al., 2008; Šóš et al., 2013). In Study 1, we followed the localization of EEG sources by means of brain electromagnetic tomography with low resolution (LORETA) in patients with panic...
Prospective, randomized comparison of efficacy of antidepressant monotherapy and combinations of antidepressants in the treatment of patients with resistant depression
Bareš, Martin ; Libiger, Jan (advisor) ; Přikryl, Radovan (referee) ; Hrdlička, Michal (referee)
Martin Bareš, M.D. Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralové, Charles University Prague Title: Prospective, randomized comparison of efficacy of antidepressant monotherapy and combinations of antidepressants in the treatment of patients with resistant depression. Background: Approximately 60% of patients respond to first antidepressant treatment trial. Combination of antidepressants (CAD) is the strategy that is often used to overcome resistance to treatment in depressive patients. The aim of the study: This randomized, 6-week, open label study compared efficacy of CAD and antidepressant monotherapies (ADM) that had been chosen according to clinical judgment of the attending psychiatrist in the treatment of patients suffering from resistant depression. Methods: A total of 60 inpatients (intent-to-treat analysis) with major depressive disorder diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of American Psychiatric Asociation, 4th revision (≥ 1 unsuccessful antidepressant treatment) were randomly assigned to the interventions. The responders who completed the acute phase of study, were evaluated for relapse within two months of follow-up treatment. The primary outcome measure was score change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), response was defined as a ≥50% reduction of MADRS score...

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