National Repository of Grey Literature 14 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Role of Pro-State Militias in the Political System in Ukraine
Bartoň, Teodor ; Laryš, Martin (advisor) ; Aslan, Emil (referee)
This diploma thesis examines the impact of ultra-nationalist pro-state militias with a radical political ideology on the stability and functioning of democratic systems. The observed cases encompass the Ukrainian Azov Battalion and Right Sector, as well as the Croatian Defense Forces (HOS) and the United-Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC). Through qualitative analysis and multiple case studies, the research investigates the consequences of these militias' activities, their integration into the state apparatus, and their potential threats to democratic processes. The findings reveal a complex relationship between militias and the state, characterized by ideological differences and simultaneous integration within the political sphere. The study highlights the militias' role in defending the state during civil conflicts, while also noting the gradual loss of autonomy as they collaborate more closely with official military structures. The research emphasizes the significance of popular support garnered by these militias during wartime, yet it highlights the limitations in their political influence within the democratic system. The thesis also introduces the concept of the "Militia-State Ambivalence Nexus" as a framework of understanding the strategies employed by governments to harness militias'...
To Run Insurgency like a Business: Self-Defeating Patronage by the Principal in Eastern Ukraine
Laryš, Martin ; Aslan, Emil (advisor) ; Svoboda, Karel (referee) ; Mareš, Miroslav (referee)
The dissertation draws on the literature on indirect warfare based on principal-agent theory, which conceptualizes indirect warfare as an example of delegation. Principals play an important role in shaping the rebellion and exerting control over it through the delegation used as a low- cost and deniable device for empowering the rebel proxies. However, the delegation is fraught with problems, especially when delegated to fragmented rebels. The literature considers the fragmented rebel militias as weak non-state actors prone to rapid failure and decay. My argument focuses on the paradox of delegation to the fragmented rebel groups. I claim that such delegation is inherently costly and visible, which contradicts the original intention of delegation as a low-cost and deniable foreign policy tool. In my dissertation, I introduce the concepts of self-defeating patronage and decentralized delegation as my contribution to the discussion on indirect warfare. The principal suffers self-defeating patronage because it must keep the barriers-of-entry low for the incipient rebel groups to overcome the collective action problem that the would-be rebels experience due to their weak social ties. Keeping the barriers low without strict control by the principal - that would raise the costs and visibility - fuels...
Post-Horseshoe Theory: Commonalities and Interactions between the European far right and Islamism
Langmoen, Sindre Mathias Byrgiel ; Laryš, Martin (advisor) ; Aslan, Emil (referee)
The Turkish and Russian diasporas residing in the West have both been the subject of suspicions and fears, been framed as extremists or as foreign agents. Such accusations are vastly overstated but are rooted in elements of truth. The purpose of the present research is to analyse Russian and Turkish diasporas in Germany, establish to what extent, how and why they are the targets of instrumentalisation by Russian and Turkish governments, and compare the Russian and Turkish cases in terms of nature, scope, and outcome. Using the principal-agent model for theorizing the delegation of authority, government-diaspora relations are examined in terms of diaspora policies, laws and institutions; political activities, attitudes and extremism; criminal networks, intelligence activities and extraterritorial repression. The analysis showed significant differences between the two cases. Turkey has established a great network of loyal institutions and movements in the diaspora, which socializes diaspora members into nationalist Turkish pro-AKP ideology and instrumentalises them into protesting, lobbying, voting, or into repressing political opponents. Russia has a weaker network and exerts less influence on its diaspora, but has still achieved success in instrumentalising diaspora communities for the sake of...
The Roles of Foreign Fighters in Insurgencies: A Typology
Klein, Gabriel ; Aslan, Emil (advisor) ; Laryš, Martin (referee)
The master's thesis deals with the phenomenon of foreign fighters primarily represented by contemporary jihadists. The author explores the insufficiently researched issue of participation of jihadist foreign fighters in insurgencies regarding their roles and activities in conflict zones. First, the author reviews the available academic literature on the concept of foreign fighters focusing on key definitions. Subsequently, the academic literature on seven most significant jihadist foreign-fighter mobilisations, Afghanistan (1980-1992), Bosnia (1992-1995), Somalia (1993-present), Chechnya (1994-2009), Afghanistan (2001-present), Iraq (2003-present), and Syria (2011-present), is analysed to identify patterns of similarity and difference in the jihadist foreign fighters' roles and activities. The author then introduces five distinct types of jihadist foreign fighters: 1) military and ideological leaders, field commanders; 2) foot soldiers; 3) suicide attackers; 4) support personnel; and 5) jihadist brides/wives. Each type is characterised based on the empirical evidence from the seven abovementioned cases of jihadist foreign-fighter mobilisations. Keywords Foreign Fighters, Insurgency, Jihadism, Roles, Typology Title The Roles of Foreign Fighters in Insurgencies: A Typology
Group Radicalization in the context of Hybrid Warfare: 'Russian World' as an ideological framework for anti-Western Radicalization
Lysenko, Mykola ; Laryš, Martin (advisor) ; Ananyeva, Ekaterina (referee)
The thesis attempts at investigating a state-driven radicalization process as it is incited by an ideological system and utilized in the context of hybrid warfare. Contemporary Russia is taken as a concrete case study, with the research questions focused on: i) presenting the Russian World as an ideological system consistent of varying individual claims and tenets; ii) analysing the radicalization potential of said claims and tenets; and iii) tracing the process of radicalization by presenting a plausible causal mechanism based on the respective concepts and theories employed. The findings indicate a certain evolution of the Russian World ideology, while the practice of hybrid warfare is argued to serve the ideology as its actualizing component if the context is considered. Conclusively, it is also identified that the claims and tenets of Russian World are challenged ever more often, raising concerns with regards to the ideology's sustainable future, and in turn, the likelihood of social and political turbulence in Russia itself or a repetition of a radicalization instance comparable in its scale to that of Crimean Annexation in 2014. Mykola Lysenko Master thesis
Causes of the Ukraine crisis
Bartáková, Aneta ; Kazharski, Aliaksei (advisor) ; Laryš, Martin (referee)
A liberal understanding of international politics is currently dominant. However, it is important to note that there are still states that have not adopted this understanding, yet, which brings complications here. The current clash of these two understandings, i.e. liberalism and realism, thus constantly forms the security environment. Probably the most obvious case of the present seems to be the case of Ukraine and the related Ukraine crisis. The aim of this diploma thesis is to give a picture of the causes of the Ukraine crisis in a broader context than is generally interpreted across individual media, using an offensive-realistic framework. The motives of the individual actors of the conflict, especially Russia, will be examined in an attempt to present those motives as not primarily offensive but to some extent as defensive. Several research questions will serve me to fulfil the above-mentioned goal - How can the main causes of the outbreak of the conflict in Ukraine be explained from the perspective of offensive realism? According to offensive realism, what actor is responsible for the outbreak of conflict? In terms of offensive realism, how can the motives of the key actors (i.e. Russia, the West) be explained?
Economic Policies and Rebel Choices: A Comparative Perspective on Libya, Syria and Yemen
Ippoliti, Beatrice Maria Luna ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Laryš, Martin (referee)
In modern history governments have had an active role in responding and influencing the economic circumstances of the state. Whether by allocating resources or administering reforms, peacetime economic policies have traditionally impacted actor's public support as the choice of policy can impact the perception of actor's legitimacy. Despite the plethora of competing definitions, political scientists agree on considering legitimacy as a basic condition of governance -as it entails the acceptance and commitment of a people to a political authority. Rather than a unique characteristic of the state, governance becomes an attribute belonging to any social arrangement that exercises "function of statehood". By focusing on the comparison between the Syrian, the Libyan, and the Yemeni civil war this thesis aim is to enquire whether a positive relationship can be assessed between government economic choices and rebel's legitimacy. Given the neopatrimonial character of the three states this dissertation will focus on the actor's economic behavior to assess legitimacy. For the purpose of this analysis, I have chosen to adopt an Elitist framework as it focuses on bargain dynamics between political actors and elites (or constituencies). The methodological approach utilized is that of a comparative case study.
Russian information warfare in the Baltic states and its impact on the society
Andrle, Vít ; Laryš, Martin (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
This diploma thesis analyses the phenomenon of the Russian information warfare targeting the Baltic states - Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. In five chapters the thesis initially theoretically examines phenomenon of the information warfare itself, specifically its typical components and advantages because of which the Russian Federation uses it. After that, the thesis estimates conceptual preconditions and incentives in the Baltic region due to which Russia implements the information warfare specifically in this region. The information warfare in this sense is understood as the psychological pressure onto the society of Baltics, hence, as one of the tools to enforce the interests and goals of the Kremlin's official foreign policy, because the initiators of such information campaigns are the Russian state media or their proxies. Third, in the empirical part, based the conceptually determined factors and particular events related to them, thesis thoroughly deals with discourses and narratives spread through the Russian and pro-Russian media operating in the Baltic states. More specifically, the analysis conducts research of the content of these narratives, their rhetoric, specific features, context and possible impacts onto the society in the Baltics. The goal of this thesis is to analyse thoroughly...
Conflict resolution in Donbas: Ukraine's contribution
Sergeeva, Oxana ; Kazharski, Aliaksei (advisor) ; Laryš, Martin (referee)
Reference SERGEEVA, Oxana. Enteral Predispositions of the Conflict in Donbass. Prague, 2021. Master's thesis. Charles University,Facultyof Social Sciences,Institute of SecurityStudies. Abstract The Revolution in Ukraine of 2014 has brought a lot of regional and international changes. Even though the crisis appears to be over, the new official authorities of Ukraine and the self- proclaimedDonetsk and Lugansk people's republics are still conflicting.It has commonly been assumed that the armed conflict in Donbas was the result of a latent Russian military aggression against Ukraine and that forces opposing the Ukrainian government do not represent the local populationrather being sponsored by the Russian authority.However, external incentives arguably could not lead to the emergence of a viable and widespread rebel movement unless there were internal predispositions to the emergence of armed separatism. It is vital to address problems within the country to identify domestic preconditions for invasion and conflict incitement. This researchwould argue that a key role in the emergence of the armed separatist movement in Donbas was played by at least two factors: historicallyformed polaritywithin the Ukrainian populationand the structure of the government. Thus, the armed conflict in Donbas was the result of a...
The re-securitization of Russia: an analysis of the assertive shift in Norwegian security policy in the aftermath of the Russian annexation of Crimea
Syberg, Louise Savalov ; Kazharski, Aliaksei (advisor) ; Laryš, Martin (referee)
The relationship between Russia and Norway is one dictated by the asymmetric nature and ideological differences among the two states. Ever since the Cold War, the relationship has been one of cooperation and communication, characterized by Norway's dual policy and constant balancing between assertiveness and reassurance. After the Russian annexation of Crimea, the Norwegian security policy seemingly shifted in an assertive direction. Russia was once again lifted from the politics of normal to the politics of extra through a securitization. This thesis aims to demonstrate how Russia became resecuritized after the Russian annexation of Crimea. The empirical evidence presented in this thesis demonstrates that this assertive shift that came after the resecuritization of Russia is a result of the Russian demonstration of its modernized military, rather than a natural consequence of the hostile act the annexation was. It seeks to demonstrate that the changing security climate with Russia's new ways of war, or so-called hybrid warfare, coupled with a diminishing US interest in the Alliance, is the reason for this change in Norwegian security policy.

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