National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Development of effective procedures for transplantation of insulin-producing tissue
Hladíková, Zuzana ; Saudek, František (advisor) ; Kvapil, Milan (referee) ; Průhová, Štěpánka (referee)
Our research has been focused on a new method of transplantation of islets of Langerhans into the greater omentum. Transplantation of pancreatic islets is an established treatment option for selected patients with unstable diabetes. The liver is almost exclusively used as a site for islet transplantation in the clinical setting. Unfortunately, immediately after graft implantation into the portal circulation, a substantial portion of the islets is lost and graft function in the liver may further deteriorate over time. The fate and location of islets implanted in the liver can only be followed with difficulty by radiological methods or biopsies. All these limitations have led to the search for alternative sites for transplantation. The greater omentum is easily surgically accessible, meets the demands of a high blood supply and can accommodate large volumes of transplanted tissue. However, the metabolic function of the islet graft itself in the omentum without fixation never achieved satisfactory long-term results in the experiment. Tissue engineering techniques have been used to improve graft attachment and maintain long-term function in the omentum. In our project, we transplanted islets into the rat omentum using a biocompatible gel consisting of recipient plasma and human thrombin....
Hypoglycemia as a limitation of treatment of diabetes mellitus
Brož, Jan ; Kvapil, Milan (advisor) ; Češka, Richard (referee) ; Karásek, David (referee)
BROŽ, Jan. Hypoglycemia as a limitation of treatment of diabetes mellitus. Prague, 2022. 100 pages. Dissertation thesis. Charles University in Prague, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine. Supervisor Kvapil, Milan. In diabetes mellitus, hypoglycaemia is defined as a condition that is associated with abnormally low blood glucose levels (≤ 3.9 mmol/l), which puts the body at potential risk. The first part of the work is devoted to the treatment of hypoglycaemia associated with physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The results showed that standardized moderate-intensity body movement without pre-agreed preventive measures led to hypoglycaemia in all participants. During exercise, the rate of ABG decline ranged from 0.7 mmol/l to 1.7 mmol/l in 10 minutes. During recovery after ingestion of 20 g of carbohydrates, the rate of increase in ABG ranged from 0.6 mmol/l to 1.9 mmol/l in 10 minutes. The amount of glucose administered resulted in recovery from hypoglycaemia in all study participants and maintained glycemia above this level for an additional rest period of 60 minutes after glucose ingestion. The second part of the work was devoted to comparing the characteristics of the results on the one hand of treatment in the same group of patients with type 2...
The influence of menopause on risk factors for atherosclerosis
Lejsková, Magdalena ; Alušík, Štefan (advisor) ; Žák, Aleš (referee) ; Kvapil, Milan (referee)
Introduction: While low in women of childbearing age, cardiovascular risk rises quickly after menopause. It is a well known fact that cholesterolemia increases in the absence of ovarian estrogen secretion, and a number of studies have demonstrated an increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS) following menopause. Despite this, conclusive evidence for most of the MS components is unavailable, and an increase in insulin resistance due to menopause has likewise not been documented. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of menopause on selected cardiovascular risk factors in Czech women. Methods: A total of 909 women, as a random 5% sample of female residents of Prague 4 aged 45-55 years, were enrolled. Fasting blood samples were obtained, a thorough history was taken, necessary anthropometric measurements and ultrasound examinations of arteries were performed. Results: In multivariate regression analysis, postmenopausal status, not age, was the only predictor of combined markers, i.e., MS as defined by NCEP-ATPIII (p = 0.03) and atherogenic lipid indexes (total cholesterol/HDL-C, p = 0.002; LDL-C/HDL-C, p = 0.004; apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I, p = 0.004). While age was the strongest predictor of individual components of MS, menopausal status was only associated with waist circumference...
The clinical significance of measuring the distensibility of the carotid artery
Chlumský, Jaromír ; Kvapil, Milan (advisor) ; Kittnar, Otomar (referee) ; Aschermann, Michael (referee) ; Spáčil, Jiří (referee)
The clinical significance of measuring the distensibility of the carotid artery Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
The relationship between autoimmunity and cytokines in clinical aspects of diabetes mellitus type 1
Janíčková Žďárská, Denisa ; Kvapil, Milan (advisor) ; Svačina, Štěpán (referee) ; Nečas, Emanuel (referee) ; Rušavý, Zdeněk (referee)
The relationship between autoimmunity and cytokines in clinical aspects of diabetes mellitus type 1 Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Conservative Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis and Use of Enteral Nutrition
Česák, Vojtěch ; Rušavý, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Kvapil, Milan (referee) ; Sobotka, Luboš (referee)
Acute pancreatitis is a disease which can present in a mild or severe form. In the last few years, the incidence of acute pancreatitis has been steadily rising. The treatment of severe cases is complex and nutrition is one of the key treatment factors. Enteral and parenteral nutrition are documented parts of acute phase treatment included in many guidelines. However, there is a controversy about the timing of initiation of peroral nutrition after the acute phase of severe pancreatitis has resolved. This dissertation shows the results of monocentric prospective randomized trial which compares the safety and effectivity of peroral nutrition compared to enteral nutrition in patients with severe acute pancreatitis during hospitalization as well as in long term after hospital discharge. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis were randomized into two groups - enteral nutrition versus peroral nutrition. The randomized nutrition strategy was initiated within the first 14 days of hospitalization. We monitored the length of hospital stay, tolerance of nutrition, complications, body weight and nutrition parameters. The two groups did not differ significantly in the length of hospital stay. The number of complications was similar between the groups, there was no significant difference in the rate of acute...
Changes in eye tissues in patients with diabetes mellitus, with emphasis on the tissue surface of the eye
Česká Burdová, Marie ; Mahelková, Gabriela (advisor) ; Kalvodová, Bohdana (referee) ; Kvapil, Milan (referee)
Introduction: Relation of diabetes mellitus (DM) to the diabetic keratopathy and various stages of corneal nerve fiber damage has been well accepted. A possible association between changes in the cornea of diabetic patients and diabetic retinopathy (DR), DM duration, and age at the time of DM diagnosis were evaluated. Neuropathies are among the most common long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. Good glycemic control is essential in prevention of this complication. DM patients with similar mean glucose levels or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels often exhibit differences in evaluation of diabetic complications. One reason for these differences may be the differences in glucose variability. DM patients with similar mean glucose levels or HbA1c levels often exhibit differences in glucose variability Hypothesis: Diabetes mellitus damages the subbasal nerve fibers of the corneal and affects the density of epithelial, endothelial and stromal cells. Corneal changes in patients with DM are dependent on the degree of diabetic retinopathy (DR), age at diagnosis, duration of DM, and compensation parameters. Purpose: To compare changes in cell density in individual layers of cornea and status of subbasal nerve fibers in patients with type 1 DM (DM 1) and in healthy subjects. To evaluate the dependence...
Conservative Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis and Use of Enteral Nutrition
Česák, Vojtěch ; Rušavý, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Kvapil, Milan (referee) ; Sobotka, Luboš (referee)
Acute pancreatitis is a disease which can present in a mild or severe form. In the last few years, the incidence of acute pancreatitis has been steadily rising. The treatment of severe cases is complex and nutrition is one of the key treatment factors. Enteral and parenteral nutrition are documented parts of acute phase treatment included in many guidelines. However, there is a controversy about the timing of initiation of peroral nutrition after the acute phase of severe pancreatitis has resolved. This dissertation shows the results of monocentric prospective randomized trial which compares the safety and effectivity of peroral nutrition compared to enteral nutrition in patients with severe acute pancreatitis during hospitalization as well as in long term after hospital discharge. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis were randomized into two groups - enteral nutrition versus peroral nutrition. The randomized nutrition strategy was initiated within the first 14 days of hospitalization. We monitored the length of hospital stay, tolerance of nutrition, complications, body weight and nutrition parameters. The two groups did not differ significantly in the length of hospital stay. The number of complications was similar between the groups, there was no significant difference in the rate of acute...
Determinants of microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications
Piťhová, Pavlína ; Kvapil, Milan (advisor) ; Rušavý, Zdeněk (referee) ; Jirkovská, Alexandra (referee)
Background: Diabetes mellitus both type 1 and 2 rank among the strongest predictors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We studied differences between type 1 and 2 diabetic women regarding association of risk factors and microvascular complications and association of cardiovascular risk factors with preclinical atherosclerosis expressed as intima-media thickness of common carotid and femoral arteries. Patients and methods: Women with type 1 (n=203) and type 2 diabetes (n=123) were examined. Microvascular complications were analyzed as follow: retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and diabetic foot syndrome and their risk factors. Preclinical atherosclerosis markers expressed as ankle- brachial index (ABI) and toe-brachial index (TBI) and intima-media thickness of common carotic (IMT CCA) and femoral (IMT CFA) arteries meassured by high resolution ultrasound were analyzed with regard to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Most important results: No serious differences in risk factors for development of microvascular diabetic complications were found. Concerning preclinical atherosclerosis risk factors in type 1 diabetic women strong association between IMT CCA and body mass index, waist circumference, and total body fat was found in contrast to type 2 diabetic women. In type 2 diabetic women...
The relationship between autoimmunity and cytokines in clinical aspects of diabetes mellitus type 1
Janíčková Žďárská, Denisa ; Kvapil, Milan (advisor) ; Svačina, Štěpán (referee) ; Nečas, Emanuel (referee) ; Rušavý, Zdeněk (referee)
The relationship between autoimmunity and cytokines in clinical aspects of diabetes mellitus type 1 Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

National Repository of Grey Literature : 16 records found   1 - 10next  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
6 KVAPIL, Martin
6 Kvapil, Martin
2 Kvapil, Matouš
4 Kvapil, Matěj
14 Kvapil, Michal
2 Kvapil, Mikuláš
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