National Repository of Grey Literature 76 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Global trends in HIV/AIDS mortality
Aubrecht, Vratislav ; Kurtinová, Olga (advisor) ; Kučera, Tomáš (referee)
This thesis is focused on the development of HIV/AIDS mortality in the world starting from the year 1990 and the main goal is estimating the possible future development of the number of inhabitants of the world and defined regions and the influence of HIV/AIDS on the number of inhabitants up to the year 2065. The possible number of HIV/AIDS deaths and people, who were not born because of HIV and AIDS, is computed up to this year. In the theoretical part of the thesis, the most important institutions, which include fight against HIV and AIDS as a part of ther programme, are presented. Natural history of HIV infection and the successes in the research of HIV vaccine are described. In the analytical part, the demographic reproduction of the population of the world and selected regions between years 1950 and 2010 is described, followed by population projection of the world and regions up to year 2065 using the cohort component method. The projection is created in four variants. The first one eliminates the HIV/AIDS mortality. The second one is the constant variant, which conserve the level of HIV/AIDS mortality from the year 2010 up to the year 2065. Last two variants, higher and lower, consider changing levels of HIV/AIDS mortality at time. According to the results of this population projection,...
Social Housing in Social Policy focusing on Prague 7 City District
Junková, Kateřina ; Kurtinová, Olga (advisor) ; Kraus, Jaroslav (referee)
Social Housing in Social Policy focusing on Prague 7 City District Abstract This diploma thesis focuses on the current system of social housing in the context of the social policy of the Czech Republic. It deals with individual problem groups using social housing, involves the research of social housing situation in other European countries and the overall historical context that has led to the current social housing situation in the Czech Republic. The theoretical framework aims to the housing itself it closely associated with the main topic. Since the subject is complex and broad, the analytical framework concentrates on social housing issues of the Prague 7 district. Current population in this particular territory is largely influenced by increased number of immigration of people mostly aged 20−45. As a result, the overall population is younger than in other parts and the number of seniors living in Prague 7 municipal district has been continuously decreasing. The outcomes of the population projection to the year 2050 suggest the proportion of age groups will probably change, and a high population growth is likely to happen under given assumptions. The life expectancy at birth and mean age of mothers at first childbirth increase, respecting nationwide trend. One of the other important factors is the...
Population and religion - possibilities of study in the Czech Republic
Fajfrová, Doris ; Fialová, Ludmila (advisor) ; Kurtinová, Olga (referee)
This work deals with the possibilities of population study of religion in the Czech Republic after 1921. It is divided into two parts. The first is theoretical and it shows the way in which the study is lead up to. The second deals with the practical possibilities of religious studies in demographic perspective. In this section census data on sex, age and religious affiliation are used as a basis for drawing up a detailed description of the gender-age structure. Data are analysed on two basic levels. At the higher are compared three basic populations defined on the basis of religion. On the lower the internal structure of the population of person's "confession" is examined. The analysis shows that the number of people who belong to any religion between 1991-2011, greatly decreased, and that they form the part of the population which aged rapidly. The population is also according to the census more feminine. It turns out that it was more a result of the age structure than the tendency of women to declare their religious beliefs. Analysis also has shown that the characteristics typical for the population "with confession", are largely determined by the three most frequent confessions: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren and Czechoslovak Hussite Church. In contrast, small churches and less...
Social housing in social policy
Junková, Kateřina ; Kurtinová, Olga (advisor) ; Kalibová, Květa (referee)
Social Housing in Social Policy Abstract This diploma thesis focuses on the current system of social housing in the context of the social policy of the Czech Republic. It deals with individual problem groups using social housing, involves the research of social housing situation in other European countries and the overall historical context that has led to the current social housing situation in the Czech Republic. The theoretical framework aims to the housing itself and family policy issues, all closely associated with the main topic. Since the subject is complex and broad, the analytical framework concentrates on social housing issues of the Prague 7 district. Current population in this particular territory is largely influenced by increased number of immigration of people mostly aged 20−45. As a result, the overall population is younger than in other parts and the number of seniors living in Prague 7 municipal district has been continuously decreasing. The outcomes of the population projection to the year 2050 suggest the proportion of age groups will probably change, and a high population growth is likely to happen under given assumptions. The life expectancy at birth and mean age of mothers at first childbirth increase, respecting nationwide trend. One of the other important factors is the availability...
Fertility postponement in the Czech Republic and selected European countries in the period 1990−2015
Tovarová, Lenka ; Kurtinová, Olga (advisor) ; Šťastná, Anna (referee)
Fertility postponement in the Czech republic and selected European countries in the period 1990−2015 Abstract We have been able to observe the trend of shifting of maternity to later periods of life in European countries since the second half of the 20th century. However crucial for this thesis is to determine whether there have been disparity in delaying of maternity between selected Eastern European (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland) and Western European (Germany and Austria) countries since 1990 till present. The goal of this work is to find the relationship among setting of family policies, fertility rate of older women and respondents' views. In the first part of this thesis are outlined basic theories explaining postponing of maternity. There are also listed consequences related to the late maternity. The thesis touches a topic of family policies which influence the phenomenon of late maternity. It presents several fundamental tools of family policies and compares them among selected countries. The second part focuses on a description of demographic indicators that demonstrate the shift in timing of maternity. The main analysis in this thesis is a logistic regression, which explains respondent's views on issues related to a harmonization of family and employment by selected explanatory variables from...
Trends and patterns of cancer mortality in Kazakhstan in comparison with some selected European countries from 1986 to 2008
Ashimov, Askat ; Burcin, Boris (advisor) ; Kurtinová, Olga (referee)
Trends and patterns of cancer mortality in Kazakhstan in comparison with some selected European countries from 1986 to 2008 Abstract Cancer is the third leading cause of premature death in Kazakhstan. Every year more than thirty thousand Kazakhstani people are diagnosed with cancer. This master thesis tries to provide base for the cancer control programmes in Kazakhstan. It also analyses the changes of the mortality level and distribution by the most important groups of tumours for men and women. The most common types of cancer are lung, skin, breast and stomach. These four cancers combined account for over 44% of new cases of cancer. Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men accounting for nearly a quarter of cancer cases in men. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women accounting for 20%. Cancer remains mainly a disease of older Kazakhstanis. The largest proportion of cancer deaths for both men and women were from lung cancer mainly caused by smoking. Deaths from cancers of the lung, stomach, breast and esophagus together accounted for almost a half (46%) of all cancer deaths. With an estimated ASMR 225.5 for males and 122.0 for females in 2008, cancer remains an important public health problem in Kazakhstan. The international comparison illustrates the differences in cancer mortality in...
Effect of colorectal cancer screening programs on lethality and incidence from this disease in the Czech Republic modeled by an APC approach
Čady, Ondřej ; Hulíková Tesárková, Klára (advisor) ; Kurtinová, Olga (referee)
This work will first introduce the problems related to the colorectal cancer - its epidemiology and screening possibilities. Next the main topic is addressed - i.e. to ascertain the influence of national screening programmes for colorectal cancer on really observed data of lethality and incidence of this disease. Group of so-called APC models was selected as a useful tool for this purpose. Applying these methods on data of The National Oncological Registry of the Czech Republic for the period between 1980 till 2009 this work aims to prove expected reducing effect of area-wide screening programme on incidence and lethality related to colorectal cancer. Using the AP model and data of previous period before the screening introduction (i.e. 1980-1999) the values of incidence and lethality were predicted for the period in question (i.e. 2000-2009). Mere comparison of this predicted values with really observed data showed that real lethality and incidence was significantly lower in both sexes as compared to the model without the screening intervention. Difference between predicted and real data corroborates positive influence of colorectal cancer screening.
The development of fertility in the context of populationpolicies in the Netherlands during the period from 1963 to 2006
Kratochvíl, Martin ; Kučera, Tomáš (advisor) ; Kurtinová, Olga (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to describe the development of fertility in the Netherlands during the last half-century and look at it in the context of Dutch population policies in that period. Fertility is represented by the period total fertility rate and some other selected indicators relate to population policies. The second demographic transition theory provides this work with a theoretical basis. The core of the work consists of statistical data analysis, which purpose is to discover and statistically confirm the relationship between the period total fertility rate and population policy mesures implemented by the Dutch governments. Methods used are time series analysis, factor analysis and elements of regression analysis. It was concluded that the influence of most variables on the period total fertility rate cannot be statistically proven. The only indicator that is at least partly related to the period total fertility rate is ratio of female to male hourly wages. The results of this thesis show that the changes in gender equality presumably influence fertility the most.
Development of the secondary sex ratio in India and China
Aubrecht, Vratislav ; Kurtinová, Olga (advisor) ; Fialová, Ludmila (referee)
Development of the secondary sex ratio in India and China Abstract The main objective of this thesis is to describe the population development and the development of the sex ratio at birth in India and China from 1950 to the present. In the majority of the populations of the world the sex ratio at birth (number of males born per 100 females) has usually values between 104- 106 male live births per 100 female live births, although determining exact borders varies depending on source. In some countries, the sex ratio at birth has risen to unnaturally high values in recent decades. This has happened in East and Southeast, South and West Asia or in Southeast Europe. In those countries, the son preference is deeply rooted. This is determined by many cultural, political, social and economic conditions. When two of the signs of gender discrimination are increasing sex ratio at birth and excessive female infant mortality, it brings a number of demographic consequences, which have further economic and social impact on society. No wonder many governments of the affected countries pay attention to this phenomenon, because those generated problems could affect and in some countries probably will affect society dozens years after sex ratio at birth returns to biologically normal values. Keywords: secondary sex ratio,...

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