National Repository of Grey Literature 25 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Blue light spectrum and its effects on selected aspects of human sleep and cognition
Šmotek, Michal ; Kopřivová, Jana (advisor) ; Rokyta, Richard (referee) ; Maierová, Lenka (referee)
Background: Since the discovery of ipRGCs (intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cells) in the retina, new research possibilities for studying the effects of light on the regulation of various behavioral and physiological functions that are independent of image formation arose. As ipRGCs are most sensitive to light of short wavelengths (460-480nm), this dissertation focuses on current topics related to the use of blue light, emphasizing its influence on circadian rhythms, sleep and cognitive performance and possible applications in clinical and non-clinical settings. Aims: The first study aimed to explore the effects of 20 minutes of narrow-bandwidth light exposure of different wavelengths on various neuropsychological and neurophysiological parameters of vigilance in healthy volunteers. The objective of the second study was to assess the effect of combining CBT-I (cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia) with wearing blue-light blocking glasses 90 minutes before bedtime on subjective and objective sleep parameters and daily symptoms (anxiety, depression, hyperarousal). The third study aimed to examine subjective sleep quality in a population of healthy volunteers and its association with evening and night light exposure to screens of media devices. Methods: In the first study, twelve healthy...
Functional-imaging and electrophysiological correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and their potential use in neurofeedback intervention
Kopřivová, Jana ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Papežová, Hana (referee) ; Stuchlík, Aleš (referee)
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental disorder that may seriously affect quality of life and even the ability to work. Despite advanced medical care there are still patients who do not respond or do not respond sufficiently to treatment. Recently proposed treatment strategies such as deep brain stimulation or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation have targeted several levels of fronto-striatal circuits which dysfunction underlies OCD pathophysiology. Likewise, neurofeedback (NFB) could target dysfunctional fronto-striatal networks by providing almost real- time feedback about their activity. As the success of these methods critically depends on good knowledge of dysfunctional loops in OCD, a more detailed investigation of neurobiological basis of this disorder is highly needed. Aims: The aim of the first part of this dissertation was to provide an overview of the current literature related to OCD and NFB. The second section of the thesis is based on five original studies of the author that were conceived to 1) explore anatomical correlate of OCD in our patients, 2) to verify its functional relevance and specificity in electroencephalographic (EEG) studies, and 3) to test the utility of the findings in NFB treatment of OCD. Methods: In our studies we included...
Development of the rat circadian system under constant light conditions
Petrželková, Lucie ; Bendová, Zdeňka (advisor) ; Kopřivová, Jana (referee)
The circadian system is a mechanism designed to generate circadian time and to synchronize it with the solar cycle. Its function is to adjust to behavioral and physiological function with the 24-hour period. The adjustment is performed using a so-called zeitgeber or synchronizer. The main circadian clock is in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the hypothalamus. Prolonged exposure of the organism to constant light conditions results in desynchronization of the circadian clock, which can lead to many pathologies. The impact of light at night on the organism has been studied for a long time, but the question of the impact of constant light on the development of the circadian system of the organism has been less studied. My thesis deals with this issue. Using RT-qPCR I investigated how the rhytm changes in the expression of selected clock genes in selected parts of the rat's brain, which has been kept in constant light sice birth. I also tested the impact of exposure to constant light on the early development of rhytm in locomotor activity later in the rat's life. Keywords: circadian system, photic entrainment, desynchronization under constant light, development, rat
Objective and subjective characteristics of sleep in chronic insomnia
Janků, Karolina ; Kopřivová, Jana (advisor) ; Papežová, Hana (referee) ; Šonka, Karel (referee)
Background: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders, negatively impacting the quality of life and increasing the risk of other health problems. Many patients with insomnia underestimate their sleep quantity compared to objective sleep measures. This objective and subjective sleep discrepancy (sleep misperception) occurs in different insomnia subtypes as well as in insomnia with a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Although previous research suggests that the sleep discrepancy reflects specific objective sleep alterations, the results of studies are inconsistent. Moreover, its relation to psychiatric comorbidities is not clear, as well as its role in the insomnia treatment. Aims: The theoretical part of the present thesis aimed to provide an overview of the recent research on sleep discrepancy in insomnia. The experimental part consists of four studies with the following goals: (1) to explore sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of sleep discrepancy in insomnia patients (Study 1); (2) to assess the association between sleep discrepancy and psychopathology (Study 2); (3) to examine changes of sleep discrepancy during and after the cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I; Study 3); (4) to assess whether the additional chronotherapeutic tool can enhance the effect of CBT-I...
Circadian system in peripheral clock in neurodegenerative disorder and affective disorder and their synchronization in constant light condition
Weissová, Kamila ; Kopřivová, Jana (advisor) ; Kemlink, David (referee) ; Svoboda, Jan (referee)
Summary: The circadian system plays an important role in human physiology and pathophysiology. It controls all processes that repeat in our body within a 24-hour period. It is a complex system that works from the behavioral level to the molecular level. This system is controlled from the central brain structure located in the hypothalamus, but its rhythmic manifestations can also be observed in almost any individual body cells. Disruption of this system in humans is often associated with the development of affective disorders or neurodegenerative diseases. The affective disorder has often been associated with a phase shift in some of the circadian driven outputs, as for example, rhythm in their physical activity. The patients with neurodegenerative disorders are seen to have circadian amplitude damping in a series of circadian rhythms. Therapeutic approaches which aim to stabilize and strengthen the circadian rhythms have also a positive long term effect on the course of these diseases. Interestingly, in the genetic studies of these diseases, a couple of specific polymorphisms have been identified in areas related to the molecular mechanism of the internal clock. In this thesis, I tried to look at the human circadian rhythms from several different angles. In the first part of this thesis I tried to identify...
Relationship between circadian rhythms and selected biopsychosocial phenomena in healthy and clinical population
Fárková, Eva ; Kopřivová, Jana (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Sumová, Alena (referee)
Introduction: Circadian rhythms are typically manifested by individual timing of the sleep-wake cycle, expressed as a specific chronotype. Social jet-lag (SJL) is a phenomenon related to circadian preference as it reflects the phase misalignment of internal biological and external social time. SJL occurs when a person does not have the opportunity to fall asleep and get up in accordance with chronotype. Chronotype and SJL are phenomena that have recently been increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of sleep disorders and many civilization diseases, especially diseases of metabolic system. Aims and objectives: The aims of the thesis were: 1/ To determine chronotype and social jet-lag and observe further links between sex, age, BMI and other parameters in a selected sample of the Czech population across socio-demographic categories. 2/ To find out whether chronotype and the SJL play a role in the treatment of obesity. 3/ To revise the commonly used methods for chronotype assessment (questionnaires and actigraphy) for their future use in the Czech environment. Material and methods: The thesis consists of three follow-up studies (questionnaire, actigraphic and combined). Both subjective and objective methods of chronotype and SJL assessment were used in the thesis. 1) The first study was a...
Role of hippocampal neurons in creation of cognitive schemas and higher-order spatial relationships
Lebedeva, Maria ; Kelemen, Eduard (advisor) ; Kopřivová, Jana (referee)
The hippocampus is the key structure in formation of representations of space (cognitive maps) in rats. Formation of spatial representations of simple environments has been described in details, in this work we focused on emergence of a spatial map of a complex environment from individual simple maps. A radial-arm maze was used to model a complex environment, where each arm was surrounded by unique pattern of proximal visual landmarks. Long Evans rats were allowed to explore gradually four different arms of the maze in a sequence of three sessions. During the first and second sessions rats separately visited two novel pairs of neighboring arms (arms 1 and 2 in the first session, arms 3 and 4 in the second session). In the third session rats were exposed to a new combination of already familiar arms (arms 2 and 3) to study how the two hippocampal maps, acquired originally as independent of each other, are integrated as the rat learns about their spatial relationship. Rats were exposed to this sequence of three sessions twice - before and after sleep. The activity of hippocampal neurons was recorded using a microelectrode system during the maze exploration and sleep. Our first observations suggest that representation of a complex environment neither is a simple combination of preexisting individual...
Acoustic stimulation of Slow wave sleep and its influence on consolidation of declarative memory in insomnia
Orendáčová, Mária ; Kopřivová, Jana (advisor) ; Kelemen, Eduard (referee)
Slow-wave sleep plays an important role in consolidation of declarative memory. From electrophysiological point of view, this process is dependent on a common occurrence and mutual integration of neocortical slow oscillations (< 1 Hz), hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (150-250 Hz) and thalamo-cortical sleep spindles (10-15 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that periodic acoustic stimulation by pink noise pulses applied at frequency of sleep slow oscillation during slow wave sleep leads to prolongation of slow wave sleep and to enhancement in declarative memory performance in normal sleepers. Our study investigated this kind of periodic acoustic stimulation in its relation to sleep architecture and declarative memory of people suffering from insomnia due to which there often comes to a reduction in slow wave sleep which positively correlates with worsening of declarative memory performance. Our aim was to investigate if this kind of comparatively non-invasive brain stimulation has a potential to increase a total length of slow wave sleep and enhance declarative memory performance in insomnia. Our study revealed acoustic stimulation neither improved declarative memory performance nor it increased total length of slow-wave sleep. No positive association was found between level of declarative memory...
The effect of psychedelics on sleep
Šachová, Pavla ; Kopřivová, Jana (advisor) ; Spišská, Veronika (referee)
Recently, psychedelic drugs gain attention thanks to their potential to cure depressive disorders, anxious states or addiction. They are not causing addiction, they are not toxic and they trigger neuroplastic changes in tens of minutes or hours, which are essential for therapeutic purposes and positively correlates with an onset of antidepressant effect. Neuroplastic changes are simultaneously the connecting link between psychedelic state and sleep. In sleep the higher rate of neuroplasticity is markable during slow-wave sleep (SWS), which duration is getting shorter in patients with mental illness. The marker o neuroplasticity is slow-wave activity (SWA), which is getting higher not only in SWS, but also after intoxication with psychedelics or after long-time using of antidepressants. So the effect of psychedelics on sleep can be described as positive and inciting its therapeutical potential. The thesis is focused on ketamine which is the most recent one as for the topic of neuroplasticity and sleep.
Neuronal activity during stereotypical behavior in quinpirole induced animal model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Alexová, Daniela ; Valeš, Karel (advisor) ; Kopřivová, Jana (referee)
The main aim of this study was to determine the changes in neuronal activity of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPC) in rats sensitized to D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) during exploration of enriched open field arena. During the experiment, the evaluation of behavioural changes induced by quinpirole sensitization were also assessed and compared to previous results. For the purpose of this study, twenty-two adult male Long-Evans rats were used. The half of the rats was sensitized to QNP by receiving daily subcutaneous injections of quinpirole (0,5 mg/kg) while the other half received saline. Both groups were habituated for ten days to open-field arena enriched with two metal objects. The behaviour of animals was videotaped and the data about locomotion and the number of visits of each locale was obtained. On the eleventh day, the part of saline and quinpirole treated groups explored the open-field arena (t = 5 min) while the other two subgroups were left as respective cage-controls. Immediately after the end of experiment, all rats were sacrificed, and the extracted brains were cryopreserved. To determine the changes in neuronal activity of selected brain regions, fluorescence in situ hybridization of immediate early gene Arc was...

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2 Kopřivová, Jana,
2 Kopřivová, Jarmila
4 Kopřivová, Jitka
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