National Repository of Grey Literature 7 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal communities among plants from different functional groups
Novák, Václav ; Kohout, Petr (advisor) ; Kolaříková, Zuzana (referee)
Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a type of mutualistic symbiosis between most plant species and fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota. Both partners exchange nutrients. The fungus provides inorganic substances especially phosphorus and receives the products of photosynthesis from the plant. Mycorrhiza also affects plant growth and resistance against pathogens. The composition of AM fungi community is, apart from abiotic factors, also driven by the host plant traits such as photosynthetic type, growth form, life cycle, CSR strategy, N-fixation or mycorrhizal status. The role of mycorrhizae also differs among different plant functional types. This thesis describes the differences in composition and diversity of AM fungal communities among plants with different ecophysiological traits and summarizes the role of mycorrhiza for different plant functional types.
Effect of increased temperature on fungal necromass decomposition in tundra
Moravcová, Andrea ; Kohout, Petr (advisor) ; Kolaříková, Zuzana (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with the decomposition of fungal necromass in the Arctic tundra (Svalbard archipelago) under the factor of climate change (simulated by an increased temperature inside the Open Top Chamber). The dynamics of fungal necromass decomposition of two selected fungi, which differ in the level of melanin content and in C:N ratio - Laccaria laccata (hyaline, lower C:N ratio) and Phialocephala fortinii (melanized, higher C:N ratio), was compared. The aim of the work was to evaluate the influence of melanization level of fungal necromass and elevated temperature on the dynamics of fungal necromass decomposition and on the community composition of the decomposers (fungi, bacteria). The experiment focused on monitoring the dynamics of fungal necromass decomposition, changes in enzyme activity, changes in melanin content and C:N ratio during decomposition, as well as on the analysis of the microbial community composition on decomposing mycelium. Throughout the whole incubation, the necromass of P. fortinii decomposed more slowly than the necromass of L. laccata. The differences in the dynamics of decomposition were mainly due to the biochemical composition of the fungal necromass (C:N ratio and melanin content). The melanin content increased in both types of mycelium during...
Dynamics of carbon and phosphorus flows in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis
Konvalinková, Tereza ; Jansa, Jan (advisor) ; Baláž, Milan (referee) ; Kolaříková, Zuzana (referee)
Dynamics of carbon and phosphorus flows in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis Mgr. Tereza Konvalinková (doctoral thesis) Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and highly specialized root symbionts, which gain all of their carbon (C) from the hosts, supplying plants with mineral nutrients (particularly with phosphorus, P) in return. This thesis focuses on the size and flexibility of C and P flows in arbuscular mycorrhiza in relation to environmental conditions, in particular to light and P availability. The indications that the symbiotic flows are regulated actively by both partners are discussed. The main findings are presented as a compilation of separate scientific works (two research articles, one review and one book section). A glasshouse experiment has shown that both mycorrhizal benefits and mycorrhizal colonization of medic (Medicago truncatula) by an AMF species (R. irregularis) decline along the gradient of decreasing light intensity. Interestingly, morphological adaptation of medic to the long-term light deprivation was boosted by mycorrhiza, probably because of C demand of AMF and due to the improved nutrition of the mycorrhizal plants. On the other hand, sudden 6-day shading caused rapid decline of shoot P content of mycorrhizal plants, accompanied with the accumulation of P...
The importance of mycorrhizal fungi in the root decomposition.
Haiclová, Klára ; Kohout, Petr (advisor) ; Kolaříková, Zuzana (referee)
Mycorrhizal fungi are known as symbionts of many plant species. Fungi provide better access to mineral nutrients and water for host plants, and in return fungi receive carbohydrates from plants. Although a significant proportion of organic matter is bound in the root biomass, little is known about the factors affecting root decomposition. Understanding the process of root decomposition and the factors that affect it, is important to us. Knowledge of root decomposition helps us understand the carbon cycle and answer questions about carbon sequestration in soil. This Bachelor's thesis is focused on the importance and function of mycorrhizal fungi during root decomposition. It describes the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on the decomposition of fine roots colonized by mycorrhizae, the ability of mycorrhizal fungi to decompose organic matter and influence the decomposition rate through competition with saprotrophic organisms. Keywords: mycorrhizal fungi, roots, decomposition, rate, organic matter, soil, importance, carbon sequestration
Vliv duální mykorhizy na příjem těžkých kovů vybranými dřevinami čeledi Salicaceae
Kuchár, Michal ; Mrnka, Libor (advisor) ; Kolaříková, Zuzana (referee)
3.2. Abstract Soil contamination by heavy metals represents rather serious environmental problem for both human health and an environment itself. One of the perspective technologies dealing with this threat that only recently has been intensely developed is phytoremediation by means of short rotation coppice plantations. As plants used in this technology (mostly poplars and willows) host two major groups of mycorrhizal fungi substantially influencing plant physiology it is important to study plant-mycobiontheavy metals interactions rather than just plant-heavy metals interactions. The present thesis aimed to contribute to the growing knowledge of the field by search for suitable mycobionts of poplar or willow tolerant to heavy metals, by evaluating an activity of the key antioxidative enzyme in selected mycobionts and by looking at physiological responses of plant hosts to their mycobionts in a soil polluted by heavy metals. The first experiment in vitro focused on screening of morphometric criteria of fungi growing on solid growth media amended with mixture of heavy metals. Based on the results, several tolerant ectomycorrhizal strains were chosen for the next inoculation of fast growing trees serving phytoextraction and phytostabilisation strategies. The second, re-synthetic experiment was conducted in...
Wood wide web - plant mycelial interconnections
Antl, Tomáš ; Vohník, Martin (advisor) ; Kolaříková, Zuzana (referee)
Mycorrhizal mycelium may form a continuous network (commnon mycorrhizal network - CMN) and connect a number of plants or even entire community in an ecosystem. In the Plant World, CMNs have a number of important physiological and ecological consequences. The present work aims to create a review on current knowledge of CMNs and the associated Wood Wide Web. The next objective is to evaluate the results of individual observations and experiments that have been made on this topic. The introductory chapters 1 and 2 describe the various types of mycorrhizal symbioses (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhiza, orchid mycorrhiza, ectomycorrhiza, ericoid and monotropoid mycorrhiza), their characteristics and ability to create CMNs. The following chapters 3 and 4 describe ecophysiological consequences of common mycorrhizal networks such as maintaining stability of plant populations, invasive plants which exploit CMNs, plant communities and the hypothesis of meta-networks. Mycorrhizal mycelium allows transfer of various substances between two plants. The transferred substances include mineral nutrients (especially nitrogen and phosphorus), but also carbon organic compounds, water, signal substances, etc. The last part summarizes the knowledge on CMN, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different experimental...
Dark septate endophytes - ubiquitous root endophytes with still unexplored ecophysiological potential
Lukešová, Tereza ; Vohník, Martin (advisor) ; Kolaříková, Zuzana (referee)
5 Abstract In natural ecosystems, all plants coexist with fungi. This results in various plant-fungus symbioses, either mutualistic, parasitic or endophytic. For example, the mycorrhizal symbiosis is a mutualistic association that occurs in ca 70 to 90 % of all terrestrial higher plants. Probably even more widespread association is endophytism, when a fungus colonizes different living plant tissues without causing a strong plant defense response. This bachelor's thesis summarizes some older as well as recent papers and reviews on the ecophysiology of the most widespread root endophytes, the Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE), and their impacts on plants. DSE are ubiquitous root colonizers of terrestrial and aquatic plants. The most frequent DSEs isolated from the roots of different plants from Northern Hemisphere belong to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). Although some of the PAC species are able to form ectomycorrhizal structures, most of them do not form any mycorrhiza-like structures in the root. Instead, they form inter- and intracellular microsclerotia and mostly melanised septate hyphae with thick cell walls. In contrast to the mycorrhizal symbiosis, DSE do not necessarily influence the host nutrient uptake, but they may play a role in plant drought, extreme...

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