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Analysis of the Impact of Immigration on Unemployment Rate in the Czech Republic
Kubíčková, Petra ; Brožová, Dagmar (advisor) ; Kadeřábková, Božena (referee)
This paper analyzes the impact of immigration on the unemployment rate in the Czech Republic between 2004-2014 by using the economically active population aged 15-64 and 15-19. The analysis of annual time series showed no significant effect for either age group as well the existence of the reverse causality between the rate of migration and the unemployment rate was not proved. The analysis of quarterly time series showed a significant negative impact of immigration on the unemployment rate of economically active people aged 15-64. Also the reverse causality was confirmed - lagged values of the unemployment rate negatively influenced the rate of migration. A significant positive impact of the immigration on the unemployment rate was not confirmed for the age group 15-19. The reverse causality of the unemployment rate in relation to the rate of migration was found - rising unemployment rate led to decrease of immigration flows.
A CONCEPT AND METHODS OF ESTIMATION OF THE NAIRU AND THE BUSINESS CYCLE AT THE LABOR MARKET IN THE VISEGRAD COUNTRIES
Jašová, Emilie ; Kadeřábková, Božena (advisor) ; Čadil, Jan (referee) ; Galuščák, Kamil (referee)
This dissertation describes the relationship between inflation and unemployment with the concept of the natural rate of unemployment at which inflation remains unchanged. By comparing NAIRU, as defined in this manner, with the actual unemployment rate, we obtain the gap in unemployment. In connection with the analysed substitution between inflation and unemployment, there can be found a decrease in the importance of the PC in the 1970s, a very popular New Keynesian PC in the 1990s, and doubts over the robustness of the estimates. On the other hand, the concept of the PC and the NAIRU had previously been developed in accordance with the real data. There is a broad consensus on the impact of monetary policy on nominal variables (inflation) and real variables (unemployment). Methods are also being combined and continuously improved This dissertation is seeking to prove or disprove the hypothesis of the NAIRU concept's usability in estimating the economic cycle on the labor market. This hypothesis has helped in the acceptance of: the support for the concept and estimating PC and NAIRU in the literature; the application of measures to refine the estimate of the NAIRU and PC in the empirical analysis of the dissertation; the dissertation conclusion's compliance with the latest international research, with the local authors and with the own research. The contribution of the dissertation can be identified thusly: distribution methods depend upon the different time periods, their treatment and the best methods for the conditions of the countries in the Visegrad Group; the specification of an unstable environment and its impact upon the estimation of the NAIRU and the economic cycle; the calculation of the unemployment rate of the sectors, age categories and their use in estimating the NAIRU and cycle on the meso-level; to determine the effect of different pricing structure indicators in order to estimate the NAIRU and the economic cycle on the labor market and the topicality of their estimates.
An empirical estimate of the pre-crisis Taylor rule of the Fed using real-time data
Mrázek, Martin ; Potužák, Pavel (advisor) ; Kadeřábková, Božena (referee)
This thesis analyses the monetary policy of the Fed in the period before the financial and economic crisis 2007. The aim of this analysis is to investigate whether the monetary policy significantly deviated from the preceding one which, according to John Taylor, adhered to the Taylor rule. This analysis is performed using both revised and real-time data. I compare the monetary policy with various specifications of the Taylor rule. I also estimate a forward-looking Taylor rule. The results confirm the deviation from the Taylor rule. However, deviations were usual in the whole sample period. Estimated models do not indicate that the monetary policy before the crisis was different from the rest of the analyzed period.
Are people more altruistic towards persons of the same sex?
Bartůněk, Martin ; Chytilová, Helena (advisor) ; Kadeřábková, Božena (referee)
This thesis deals with the differences in the degree of altruism between men and women, with varying degrees of information. In three rounds of the dictator game experiment, the dictators decided how to redistribute the money between themselves and the recipient. The differences in altruism among the sexes were already dealt with, for example in the works by Andreoni, Vesterlund (2001), Dufwenberg, Muren (2004) or Eckel, Grossman (1998), whose experiments served to inspire the creation of the experimentation in this work. However, the differences in behaviour of men and women in all the observed rounds proved to be statictically insignificant, in this work. The results of this work do not support the hypothesis of a higher degree of altruism in the situation when the dictator has the information about the sex of the recipient, compared to the situation where he does not have it. Male dictators, as well as female ones, behaved equally altruistically to female and male and anonymous recipients.
Output-Inflation Trade-off After a Quarter of a Century of Inflation Targeting
Kamarád, Martin ; Potužák, Pavel (advisor) ; Kadeřábková, Božena (referee)
This thesis estimates the treatment effect of inflation targeting adoption on inflation, inflation variability, output, and output variability for 25 explicit inflation targeting countries. I implement the propensity score matching methodology that takes into account the problems of non-experimental nature, such as selection bias or selection on observable, and allows me to effectively mimic properties of randomized experiment and compute unbiased treatment effect estimates. I introduce a variety of propensity score matching methods that were recently developed in the treatment effect literature, including Nearest Neighbor, Radius matching, Kernel matching, and Inverse Probability Weighting. The results indicate that both industrial and developing inflation targeting countries exhibit lower inflation levels and at the same time higher output growth than non-targeting countries. The estimates are however in most cases statistically insignificant. Moreover, it appears that both industrial and developing countries achieve combination of lower inflation variability and output variability compared to non-targeting countries. Nonetheless, majority of the estimates are again statistically insignificant. The results are to a small extent sensitive to the choice of propensity score matching method. Radius matching with tight calipers (r=0.005, r=0.001) tends to provide the most reliable estimates. Balancing properties of the models are reasonable and compared to the previous research the standardised biases are quantitatively better.
Differences between men and women in the Czech labour market
Stroukal, Dominik ; Kadeřábková, Božena (advisor) ; Pavelka, Tomáš (referee) ; Němec, Otakar (referee)
This thesis consists of five articles that apply current world research on labor economics at the Czech Republic and confirms the significant differences between men and women in this market. It shows that gender has a significant influence on the preference on the labor market and, consequently, on employment and health. First, the thesis shows that preferences are relevant determinant of career and then we study the difference in preference of salary for men and women. Subsequently it shows that gender plays a significant role in explaining the relationship between homeownership, and unemployment, as well as unemployment and health. The first chapter was able to demonstrate that the preference for a career has a positive influence on the choice of career. The influence of higher education on prioritizing career proved to be positive and significant. Probability of a career choice is reduced by the presence of children, however, is not dependent on their number, which is contrary to the theory of preferences. The second chapter shows that Czech women prefer more non-monetary rewards than men. It has also been shown that people with university education are same in the preferences of non-monetary rewards regardless of the gender of the respondents, however, compared to the world's research, the Czech higher education increases this preference. It turned out that women prefer risk less than men. The third chapter demonstrates that although the housing market undermines labor mobility and employment in the Czech Republic at the regional level, therefore, that in regions with a higher rate of home ownership is higher unemployment, at the individual level, the owners of housing are unemployed are less likely. The estimates are significantly different for men and women. Men living in owner-occupied housing have a higher likelihood of employment than women. At regional level, however, this thesis shows that the high rate of home ownership increases unemployment for both men and women, in the long run only to women. The fourth chapter showed that men transition to homeownership reduces the likelihood of unemployment next year. For women, this relationship has proved to be insignificant. In addition, as insignificant showed the opposite relationship, the transition from unemployment to the newly acquired home ownership. The last chapter shows that the change in the working status to unemployment will increase in the future probability of worse health. Influence in less than two years, however, proved to be significant. An important conclusion is that men have a significantly stronger relationship between health and unemployment than women.
Optimal Monetary and Fiscal Policy at Zero Lower Bound
Šestořád, Tomáš ; Potužák, Pavel (advisor) ; Kadeřábková, Božena (referee)
This thesis concerns the interaction of monetary and fiscal policy. Using New Keynesian model, we show the impact of fiscal expansion under different specifications of monetary policy rules. The analysis of the transmission of fiscal expansion focuses on the situation in which central bank's nominal interest rate reaches zero lower bound. We verify the economic model using vector autoregression based on data of the United States. The results of the theoretical and empirical research suggest that the influence of government spending on the product is greater at the zero lower bound.
What is the Effect of Money Supply Changes to the Real Economy of the Czech Republic?
Trnková, Adéla ; Potužák, Pavel (advisor) ; Kadeřábková, Božena (referee)
The thesis analyses in detail the relationship between the money stock defined by money aggregates M1 and M2 and the real GDP in the Czech Republic for period between 1996 and 2015. A long-term relationship between the real GDP and the money aggregate is not found using quarterly time series data. These conclusions are in accordance with the economic theory which does not confirm that money affects level of the real GDP in the long run. Short-term relationship between given variables is also analysed. Results indicate that the growth rate of the money aggregate M1 statistically significantly affects the growth rate of the real GDP in the same direction which is in line with monetary theories of business cycle. On the other hand, any statistically significant relationship for the money aggregate M2 is not found which speaks in favour of the Real Business Cycle theory. The Policy Ineffectiveness Proposition accepted by New Classical Macroeconomists is also tested in the thesis. The issue is investigated for the whole period and subsequently for shorter time from 2000 to 2015 where the uniform monetary policy is applied. Results for the money aggregate M1 imply that expected changes in the growth rate of M1 play important role in the money-output relationship which is consistent with the New Keynesian Macroeconomic theory. Considering the shorter period of time, Lucas' theory seems to be more appropriate explanation. Outcomes for the aggregate M2 provide mixed conclusions which support rather the Real Business Cycle theory. At the end of the thesis, there is a section devoted to the quasi money (one of M2 aggregate components) as a possible source of mixed results.
Consolidation of the banking sector in the Czech Republic and the impact on performance of banks
Rod, Aleš ; Kadeřábková, Božena (advisor) ; Musílek, Petr (referee) ; Mejstřík, Michal (referee)
The dissertation thesis analyzes reasons for the consolidation of the banking sector in the Czech Republic, the shape of the consolidation and impact of the consolidation institution's activities on the performance of the Czech banking sector. The first part of the research deals with the reasons for consolidation, i.e. specificities of the banking sector in the Czechoslovakia before 1989 and the transformation of the banking sector during the 1990s. The factors analyzed significantly influenced the processes of disintermediation, universalization and diversification in commercial banking. The analysis of banking profitability measures, which is the second part of my dissertation thesis, employs those aspects mentioned above. The thesis concludes there was an objective necessity to consolidate the banking sector after 1990. However, the consolidation process had been influenced by both a deficient institutional environment and inflation of goals set for consolidation institutions. This generated inefficiencies related to the activities of consolidation institutions (e.g. the management of receivables and rent-seeking) and also influenced the income and profit performance measures of the banking sector in the Czech Republic.
Do Gun Buybacks Have Effect on Crime Rate?
Chmelík, Pavel ; Komrska, Martin (advisor) ; Kadeřábková, Božena (referee)
This paper analyzes effect of gun buyback that took place in Great Britain in years 1996 and 1997 on crime rate and compares the results with theoretical arguments and previous empirical findings. It contains analysis of three independent time series: crime rate in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Models of the time series are built using Box-Jenkins methodology. The models are tested for presence of a structural break using visual analysis, Chow test and Quandt-Andrews test. These tests are used as an evaluation criterion of the effect of buyback on crime rate. The result of the analysis is that it is not possible to reject the null hypothesis that buybacks do not have effect on crime rate.

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1 KADEŘÁBKOVÁ, Blažena
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