National Repository of Grey Literature 121 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
How Much in Taxes Do Multinational Enterprises Pay?
Boukal, Tomáš ; Janský, Petr (advisor) ; Palanská, Tereza (referee)
Taxation of multinational enterprises accounts for a significant portion of government revenues. These revenues are however negatively affected by the tax behavior of many multinational groups which shift significant part of their profits to tax haven countries. The prevailing body of the literature on this topic has focused on the quantification of shifted profits and the resulting tax losses. Thus, the question of how much multinational enterprises do pay on taxes has remained unanswered. This has changed with the recent publications of Bolwijn et al. (2018) and Tørsløv et al. (2018). The aim of this thesis is to discuss their methodologies, apply them and present the amount of taxes paid by foreign affiliates of multinationals in individual countries. We express the results as a portion of GDP to enable cross-country comparison and put them in contrast to the estimates of tax losses from profit shifting. Keywords multinational enterprise, corporate income tax, international taxation, government revenue, tax avoidance
Corruption, Tax Abuse, and Financial Secrecy
Palanský, Miroslav ; Janský, Petr (advisor) ; Riedel, Nadine (referee) ; Zucman, Gabriel (referee) ; Johannesen, Niels (referee)
Corruption, Tax Abuse, and Financial Secrecy PhD Dissertation, Miroslav Palanský, IES CUNI, 2020 Abstract This dissertation is composed of three papers that focus on different aspects of the relationship between the public sector and individuals who do not comply with the norms and regulations set by the government. I classify the ways in which individuals do so into two categories - corruption and tax abuse. Corruption, defined as the abuse of entrusted power for private gain, results in individuals obtaining more benefits from the public sector than is intended. Tax abuse, on the other hand, is defined as contributing less to the public sector than is intended. The last chapter of the dissertation focuses on financial secrecy, which I argue is the key facilitator of the two channels. In Chapter 2, I show that companies that donate money to Czech political parties subsequently report abnormally high profits, pointing to preferential treatment that these firms enjoy as a result of their political connections: I conservatively estimate that the connected firms outperform their non-connected but otherwise similar competitors by 8 to 12% following the establishment of the connection, which is a higher effect than found previously for more developed economies. Importantly, however, I find that the effect...
Anonymous Companies and Public Procurement: Evidence from the Czech Republic
Jakab, Miroslav ; Palanský, Miroslav (advisor) ; Janský, Petr (referee)
Anonymous Companies and Public Procurement: Evidence from the Czech Republic Abstract This thesis follows up on previous research concerning inefficiencies linked to tenders awarded to anonymous companies. After anonymous shares were abolished in 2014, the question is whether similar inefficiencies can be detected in the case of companies that ceased to be anonymous. A balanced sample of formerly anonymous companies and their comparable peers was constructed via a matching algorithm. A Welch unequal variance t-test was then used to check whether a disproportionate drop in selected performance indicators and in the share of formerly anonymous companies on total volume of public procurement can be detected. A linear regression model was further applied to inquire about the effect of anonymity and former anonymity on tender-specific savings. The results show that anonymity significantly contributes to lower tender savings, but no similar negative effect can be found in case of formerly anonymous companies. Profitability of the formerly anonymous companies also decreased, but no long- term drop in tender volume was found, indicating that a large portion of the inefficiencies can be traced back to well-established businesses rather than special purpose shells. This thesis thus extends the present research in the...
Political connections and ruling in public procurement disputes: Are the decisions of the Czech Office for the Protection of Competition politically biased?
Viktorinová, Marie ; Palanský, Miroslav (advisor) ; Janský, Petr (referee)
Marie Viktorinová Abstract The data about financial support of firms and individuals to politicians provide an incentive for research as the connections between businesses and politics raises the problem of conflict of interest. Using data about results of disputes in public procurement tenders from 2004 to 2018, data about donations to political parties and data about parties in power of municipalities, regions and ministries between the years 2006 and 2018, this thesis investigates the effect of political connections on the results of disputes in public procurement. The analyze focuses on hypotheses about significant effect of having complainant or chosen contestant connected to party in power of government, municipality, region or ministry on the result of dispute being serious misconduct against fair competition, where distinct subsets of disputes with respective contracting authority are considered. Using logistic and probit regressions, the results of this thesis point out a significant positive relationship between misconduct found and chosen contestant connected to any party. Finally, the thesis lays down its constrictions and few suggestions for future research.
Characteristics of tax havens and their users
Sovičová, Veronika ; Janský, Petr (advisor) ; Poláková, Nikol (referee)
The purpose of the thesis is to address the characteristics of the countries that tend to engage in tax haven practices - both tax havens and their users. In the descriptive part of the thesis, we review a number of common traits of the countries that become tax havens. We mostly focus on the features other than those directly related to provision of financial services, such as bank secrecy or low/non-existent tax rates. Our primary interest are the characteristics that may contribute to the adoption of tax haven status. Subsequently, we employ the method of ordinary least squares to examine the traits of the countries that use tax haven services. Specifically, we are interested whether countries with certain characteristics tend to own greater shares of global offshore wealth than others. We include the traits such as corruption, top marginal income tax rates, inflation, GDP, or country's distance from Switzerland to examine the relationship. Some of our most interesting findings are that top marginal income tax rates are negatively correlated with the offshore-held amount of wealth and, contrary to common belief, more corrupt countries appear to have lower offshore wealth shares.
The Impact of Economic Development on Asset Poverty: Evidence from Slovakia
Lancuchová, Petra ; Polák, Petr (advisor) ; Janský, Petr (referee)
This thesis deals with asset poverty and examines whether current economic development reduces the threat of households falling into asset poverty and whether the gap between poor and rich households is widening. For that pur- pose, we use data obtained from the Slovak HFSC survey, which took place in 2014. Economic development between 2014 and 2019 is simulated using macroeconomic indicators such as inflation, unemployment rate, and others. Besides the OLS method, which shows the effect of examined independent variables on the average value of household assets, we also employ quantile regression to compare the difference in the influence of independent variables on different values of assets. Regression results suggest that, indeed, recent economic development in Slovakia might reduce the risk of asset poverty; how- ever, this does not apply to all households. Economic development seems to be significant primarily for households with a higher value of assets, which may lead to a growing gap between wealthy and poor households. JEL Classification C13, D31, I32, O11 Keywords asset poverty, economic development, poverty measurements, wealth Title The Impact of Economic Development on Asset Poverty: Evidence from Slovakia
Economic incidence of corporate income tax
Petrželka, Václav ; Janský, Petr (advisor) ; Godar, Sarah (referee)
The main objective of this thesis is to determine whether and if there is any incidence of corporate income tax on the level of wages. This topic has been discussed for decades, and the conclusions of empirical analyses vary across available studies. Data on 35 OECD Member States for the period 2000-2018 are examined to verify this impact. Because we believe that our variables affect each other over time and at the same time there is a variable in the model that causes heterogeneity, we use a panel VAR model. Altogether, two models are estimated, as we have demonstrated two datasets. However, the results show that there is no evidence that changes to the corporate income tax rate affect wages in any way. Although this discovery is not very statistically significant, it is a very interesting finding, which is consistent with some of the authors of contemporary scientific literature.
Impact of smoke-free laws on hospitality businesses in the European perspective
Simpartl, Josef ; Janský, Petr (advisor) ; Haas, Emma (referee)
Ever since smoke-free laws regarding the hospitality business were proposed, there was an argument that these policies were going to harm their revenues and employment. This bachelor thesis examines this argument in the European context. The examination is divided into three parts. First, it aims to distinguish between effects of two distinctive forms of smoke-free laws. Second, it analyzes the impact of smoke-free policies over time. Third, it attempts to assess differences of their impact based on regional or socio-economic differences. Using difference-in-differences analysis of administrative annual data from Eurostat database, this thesis does not find any permanent effect of smoke-free laws on revenues or employment of hospitality businesses. The results of the analysis also show, that if there was any significant impact throughout the first years of the smoke-free law's validity, it was always short-lasting. Still, the over time impacts of the individual forms of smoke-free laws differ. In case of a partial smoke-free law, there is a statistically significant negative impact on turnover immediately after its implementation and a positive impact on employment in the third and fourth year after its implementation. The complete smoking ban does not exhibit any statistically significant impact at all. In...
The Value of Political Connections: Evidence from the Czech Republic
Palanský, Miroslav ; Janský, Petr (advisor) ; Gregor, Martin (referee)
The Value of Political Connections: Evidence from the Czech Republic Miroslav Palanský Abstract This thesis estimates the value of political connections in the Czech Republic and it is divided into two parts. The first one explores the recently extended, most advanced publicly available data set on political party financing in the Czech Republic, covering the time period 1995-2015. We analyze basic patterns in party funding and their development over time. We focus primarily on private funding from both legal and natural persons. The data show that there exists substantial heterogeneity in the volume of private funding across parties and over time, but contributions from the government budget remain the most important source of income for all larger parties. We analyze the available data on donations and discuss several issues regarding the notion that donors may view contributions as investment, yielding possible profits in the future. In the second part, we use the data set of corporate donations to construct a proxy variable for political connections and to estimate the effect of being connected to a political party on the financial performance of such firms. We find that the connected firms perform significantly better than the non- connected ones in the years following the establishment of the...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 121 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
18 JANSKÝ, Petr
10 Janský, Pavel
10 JÁNSKÝ, Pavel
18 JÁNSKÝ, Petr
10 Jánský, Pavel
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